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Solution of the Forest Road Network Optimization in the Transformation to a Selective Silviculture Method

Abstract

The paper is focused on the forest road access in the area of supposed specific method of forest management. The studied forest area of 81 hectares (ha) is intended for transformation by selective silviculture method demanding dense forest road network. The parameters of the current road network were analysed by Beneš method based on quantifying the general geometric and configuration criteria of the road network. The new road distribution was designed with respect to the results of the terrain slope and runoff concentration analyses to reduce the negative impacts of the roads on the surrounding environment. The new road layout resulted to the decrement of all types of skidding distances. The real skidding distance Ds decreased by 51% to the value of 72 m. In addition, the road network efficiency was increased by 14%.

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Identification of Study Sites for Placement of Sediment Traps in Vegetated Buffer Strips

Abstract

The aim of this contribution was to outline the decision procedure for selecting potential sites suitable for installing sediment traps in vegetation buffer strips in the Fugnitz catchment, Austria. The selection procedure consisted of GIS data processing where the contributing areas of specific sites were specified according to the selected criteria (i.e. slope above 2°, vegetation strip in between agriculturally used land and river network, contributing area of at least 300 m2). Available landuse maps were updated with formerly not-digitized structures potentially influencing connectivity (e.g. ephemeral streams and road ditches) which were mapped in the field. From 31 pre-defined sites 15 were selected, taking into account as additional selection criteria the slope angle, soil erodibility and size of the contributing area. Two sites were selected for further investigations – i.e. installation of the sediment traps in vegetation filter strips collecting event-based sediment yields from adjacent arable fields. We conclude that GIS analysis has shown to be useful for the first step-delineation of potential sites of interest on the catchment scale. However, field-based surveys have been shown to be inevitable to obtain on-site information on vegetation characteristics and fine-scale topographic and management information.

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Sensitivity Analysis of Input Data in Surface Water Quality Models

Abstract

The article is focused on analysis of input data impact on outputs of water quality models. The authors examined the impact of roughness coefficient, both boundary and initial conditions setup on changes of outputs generated by HEC-RAS model. Simulation results have shown a various response rate of input data on simulated results. The strong impact shows roughness coefficient setup that through the value of longitudinal dispersion coefficient affects pollution transport process. Changes in boundary conditions have had less influence on outputs. Relatively strong impact shows the setup of initial state of pollution concentration along the reach mainly for the case of low gradient rivers.

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Measurement of Volumetric Water Content by Gravimetric and Time Domain Reflectometry Methods at Field Experiment with Biochar and N Fertilizer

Abstract

There are many methods used for soil water content measurement which we can divide into direct gravimetric methods from using soil samples or indirect methods that are based on the measurement of another soil property which is dependent on soil moisture. The paper presents the findings of volumetric water content measurements with gravimetric and time domain reflectometry (TDR) methods. We focused on four variants in the field experiment in Dolná Malanta (Slovakia): control variant (B0+N0), variant with biochar at dose 20 t.ha−1 without N fertilizer (B20+N0), variant with biochar 20 t.ha−1 and N fertilizer 160 kg.ha−1 (B20+N160) and variant with biochar 20 t.ha−1 and N fertilizer 240 kg.ha−1 (B20+N240). TDR is nowadays a well-established dielectric technique to measure volumetric water content; however, its accuracy is influenced by high concentration of salts in soil. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of added N fertilizer on the measuring accuracy of HydroSense II device that is operating under the TDR principle.

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Iron and Manganese in Well Water: Potential Risk for Irrigation Systems

Abstract

In the light of climate changes and in order to achieve stable crop production, irrigation represents an inevitable measure. Apart from water quantity, water quality represents a matter of concern. The paper elaborates on the presence of iron and manganese, as the main factors of causing the clogging of irrigation systems. The examined well water samples were taken mainly from Serbia. Photometric methods were applied for determining iron and manganese, and sensors for pH and conductivity. The obtained values were later subjected to a classification for irrigation water and the well water samples were classified according to the given thresholds. Precise location and presentation of the obtained results were done using the Geographic information system. The research has shown that from the analysed well water, only in 6 samples iron concentrations were increased up to a level classified as “extreme restrictions,” 4 samples as “warning,” while 31 samples of water were “adequate for irrigation.” Concerning manganese, in only one sample water was classified as “extreme restrictions,” in 14 as “warning” and in 26 as “adequate for irrigation.” pH and conductivity did not coincide with elevated concentrations of iron and manganese, but in the cases of exceeding thresholds, special attention should also be paid to these parameters.

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The use of multi-criteria analysis for selection of technology for a household WWTP compatible with sustainable development / Zastosowanie analizy wielokryterialnej do wyboru rozwiązania technologicznego przydomowej oczyszczalni ścieków zgodnego z ideą zrównoważonego rozwoju

Habilitacyjna, 224. (in Polish) Gajewska, M. & Obarska-Pempkowiak, H. (2009). 20 years of experience of hybrid constructed wetlands exploitation in Poland, Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska, 11, pp. 875-888. (in Polish) Generowicz, A., Kulczycka, J., Kowalski, Z. & Banach, M. (2011a). Assessment of waste management technology using BATNEEC options, technology quality method and multi-criteria analysis, Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 4, pp. 1314-1320. Generowicz, A. Kulczycka, J., Kowalski, Z. & Banach, M. (2011b). Assessment

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Effect of the Application of Advanced Oxidation Technology on the Effectiveness of Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters with a High Concentration of Formaldehyde

-220. [6] Jonstrup, M., Punzi, M., & Mattiasson, B. (2011). Comparison of anaerobic pre-treatment and aerobic post-treatment coupled to photo-Fenton oxidation for degradation of Azo dyes, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 224, 55-61. [7] Kaczala F., Marques, M., & Hogland, W. (2010). Biotreatability of wastewater generated during machinery washing in a wood-based industry: COD, formaldehyde and nitrogen removal, Bioresource Technology, 101, 23, 8975-8983. [8] Khoufi S., Aloui, F., & Sayadi, S. (2006). Treatment of

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The Environmental Assessment of the Intensity of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Anthropogenically Transformed Soils

Abstract

The protection of urban soils and soils located near arterial highways from heavy metal contamination is an environmental issue which has not been resolved in megalopoleis. Purposeful scientific experimental data obtained on the basis of field and laboratory studies is required in order to solve these problems, which has determined the choice of the research objective: to assess the degree of degradation changes in anthropogenically transformed soils in Moscow and Orel regions in terms of total content of heavy metals and their degree of mobility.

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Nitrogen in the Process of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion

References [1] Appels L., van Assche A., Willems K., van Impe J. & Dewil R. (2011). Peracetic acid oxidataion as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Bioresources Technology , 102, 4124-4130, doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.12.070. [2] Bhattacharya S.K., Madura R.L., Walling D.A. & Farrel J.B. (1996). Volatile solids reduction in two-phase and conventional anaerobic sludge digestion. Water Research , 30, 1041-1048, doi:10.1016/0043-1354(95)00252-9. [3] Borowski S. & Szopa J.S. (2007). Experiences with the

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Organizational and Economic Principles of Agricultural Machinery Use

References AFANASYEV, S. 2006. Quality elemental base a basis of reliability of domestic technology. In Machinery of agroindustrial complex, 2006, no. 5–6, pp. 40–43. BELOUSKO,Y. 2008. Development of agricultural machinery market. K. : NSC IAE, 2008, 132 p. BREWER, P. 2011. Current state of technical potential of agricultural enterprises of Zhytomyr region. In Bulletin of Zhytomyr National Agroecological University. Scientific-theoretical collection (economic sciences). Zhytomyr : ZNAMEU, vol. 2, 2011, no. 1 (28), pp. 134–142. BURKOVSKII

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