The article is a synthetic outlook at Konrad Adenauer’s life, activity and the legacy of that politician, described in a tendentious way in the past period, and nowadays – after a temporary increase in the interest during the first years of systemic transformation – deserving a closer examination. In the initial part of the article, some integration concepts of past centuries have been outlined. Then, in a biographical sketch, Adenauer’s private and public activities were characterized, falling into diverse political periods, ranging from imperial Germany, to the post-war formation of the foundations of a reborn democratic state. His participation in these events is outlined. The main achievements of Adenauer during almost 30 years of work in the Cologne municipality are pointed out and the repressions he suffered during the Nazi regime and his participation in the post-war reconstruction of Germany were discussed: long-term leadership in the CDU and the 14-year period of government as the first chancellor of democratic post-war Germany. It was pointed out that the political line he designated, the active presence of Germany in the uniting Europe, proved to be very stable and continued by his successive successors.
The systemic transformation of Poland after 1989 led to an acceleration of restructuring processes both in the national economy and in individual regions. The dynamics of changes was exceptionally high in rural areas. The most rapid changes occurred in areas which are situated within the range of the direct influence of bigger cities. This paper strives to compare the changes in entrepreneurship which took place in the suburban areas of Kielce and Radom during the transformation period, before and after the introduction of the administrative reform in Poland.
We sought answers to the following questions:
– What differences occur in the dynamics of changes of the entrepreneurship indicator in sub-urban areas in case of two cities of a similar size, of which only Kielce has remained the regional (voivodship) capital?
– What differences occur in the dynamics of changes of the entrepreneurship indicator in relation to the distance from the central city?
In order to answer the above questions, the entrepreneurship indicators for agriculture, industry and service sectors were calculated for the analysed areas between 1995 and 2005.
Wiesław Dębski, Ewa Feder-Sempach and Bartosz Świderski
Beta parameter is one of the commonly used measures of the investment risk of individual stock or portfolio. It plays a crucial role in modern portfolio theory particularly in management of financial investment portfolios. In the field of beta parameter, numerous studies have been conducted, especially beta properties stability in the context of the stock market cycle phases, measuring frequency of rate of return, and the length of a sample period. There are much fewer studies concerned beta parameter in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe which have undergone systemic transformation at the end of the previous century. From a scientific point of view, it is interesting to know how the beta parameter behaves in these countries.
The main goal of this article is to examine the beta parameter stability over bull and bear market conditions on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The paper presents an analysis of beta stability for 134 stocks of the largest companies listed at the WSE during years 2005–2013. To verify statistically the hypothesis of beta parameter stability, we used monthly returns in the Sharpe’s single-index model. In the first part of the article, we present a brief review of the literature and methodology of the study, while in the second part, the obtained results and conclusions are shown.
Barbara Roszkowska-Mądra, Renata Przygodzka and Adam Sadowski
The aim of this paper was to analyze reasons and a range of changes in agricultural land areas due to allocation them for non-agricultural purposes across a period of 1990-2015 in Poland. This phenomena has not been sufficiently considered till now. Lack of this knowledge does not allow effective reduction of the decline of agricultural land by appropriate legislation and administrative action, especially on urban areas. In Poland, a significant proportion of agricultural land is allocated annually for non-agricultural purposes, which is connected with their permanent withdrawal from agricultural production. The permanent decline in the area of agricultural land in the country has been observed since the beginning of the systemic transformation. The dominant direction of the land withdrawal for non-agricultural purposes is their allocation to housing construction. In 1995 the Law on the protection of agricultural and forest land was introduced. This law includes strengthened economic tools for the protection of agricultural land in the form of mandatory charges for the withdrawal of agricultural land showing the best soil quality. This has led to a significant reduction in agricultural land use withdrawal. However, accelerated regional development following the accession of Poland to the EU and, then, the need to expand technical infrastructure resulted in several amendments to the 1995 Act, significantly weakened the protection of agricultural and forest land. It seems that the land as the unrepeatable good should be strictly covered by more respect and protection than ever before, especially in areas with the highest production value.
Jadwiga Biegańska, Mirek Dymitrow, Elżbieta Grzelak-Kostulska and Stefania Środa-Murawska
1989 was a turning point in the socio-economic development in the former Eastern bloc, initiating a systemic transformation that affected the society at large. It also contributed to the crystallisation of certain cultural landscapes, hitherto largely illegible due to the inhibition of spatial processes encountered during socialism. In Poland, after a quarter-century of a free market economy, the focus on social problems began to expand to the spatial realm as well. It became apparent that the progressive social polarisation that followed was most prominent in environments striated by a particular landscape type – the former State Agricultural Farm (PGR). Considering PGRs as ‘the epitome of rurality’ subject to ideas informing about the direction of contemporary ‘rural development’ prompts a different way of looking at the problem. In this paper, we investigate the concept of rurality in the discursive tenor of implemented policy and contrast it with contextualised empirical examples. Our findings suggest that an efficient policy should be confronted with the expectations of residents at the local level, and introducing top-down actions usually ends in failure as in the case of post-PGR estates.
The premises of the development of the private sector in Poland - some conclusions
Processes of transformation in companies or more broadly the economic transformation is a part if a wider process of the systemic transformation. Within this process, a special place is held by the political system, although it should be remembered that these are changes in the economic system which will ultimately determine a success or failure of occurring changes. Parallel, there must be taking place changes in the social structure. These must both consolidate new structures or force out a slowdown in the speed of occurring changes, as well as demand a restoration of old solutions. In a longer time perspective, the preserving of political power will depend on the remodeling of economic system in accordance with the assumed conception, because any significant changes in this system may pave the way for the strengthening of political system. Hence, the speed of occurring transformations plays also an important role here.
All this shows that the speed of changes. in the economy must be particularly well balanced and adapted to a concrete situation. Changes in social structures will be taking place at a similar speed enlarging various groups of persons interested in transformation processes. The transformation process will be successful if the main part of the society accepts the system of values corresponding to the new social system. The success of the deep restructuring of economic relations in our economy depends primarily on the effectiveness of the reform aimed to restructuring of ownership in all sectors. This requires a new approach to the prospects of private property growth, i.e. an approach unbiased by any doctrinal prejudices, as well as suggestions glorifying private property as a panacea to cure Poland's economy. The Polish economy is characterised both by objective and subjective premises in the development of the private sector and a strong motivation of individuals to launch their own business activities in this sector.
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