compression. In the same series, the mortality rates of patients with IVC involvement were very high after traditional surgery (mesoatrial shunts) and better results were reported using another technique (SSPCS + cavoatrial shunt) in 18 patients, all surviving after a follow-up of 5 to 25 years[ 32 ]. However, outcome after surgical shunt is variable and worse results were reported by others[ 30 , 31 , 33 ]. In most of the above series, patients with liver failure were not considered for surgery but for liver transplantation[ 31 , 32 , 33 ].
BCS due to a IVC
to the cortex is an adaptive response of the ischemic milieu. A major concern and application of HSP in organ transplantation is their potential role in preventing or delaying the process of rejection. Experimental data has shown that activation of heat shock protein makes cells preconditioned by subjecting them to sublethal stress to become resistant and survive subsequent otherwise lethal stimuli. A natural consequence of such results will imply that HSP stimulation in the transplanted kidney would preserve kidney function for a longer time. However, this has not
Justin S. Michael, Bong-Seop Lee, Miqin Zhang and John S. Yu
progression to disease.[ 44 , 45 ] Collectively, these two genes when combined have a better prediction of glioblastoma survival than IDH 1 or MGMT independently, with IDH1mt/MGMTmet having the longest survival rate and IDH1wt/MGMTunmet with the lowest survival rate.[ 46 ]
CSCs have shown to elevate the levels of MGMT expression. The ability of CSCs to survive in hypoxic regions makes it virtually impossible for traditional chemotherapies to reach the cells that are crucial for tumor survival and progression.[ 29 , 30 , 47 , 48 ] With increased drug delivery to GBM
The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.
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