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Lenka Luptáková, Daniela Siváková, Alexandra Michnová, Veronika Čerňanová, Marta Cvíčelová and Zuzana Danková
Menopause is associated with various physiological symptoms which can be related to the most common health problems in menopausal women and a decrease in their quality of life. Determinants of experiencing menopausal symptoms are complex because they include reproductive, environmental, lifestyle and social factors.
The aim of this study is to assess whether selected reproductive, lifestyle and health factors are associated with the occurence of hot flushes, night sweats, palpitations, dizzy spells and/or pins and needles in the hands and feet. A total of 346 women aged between 39 and 59 years living in Slovakia were recruited for this cross-sectional survey. Data on menopausal symptoms and potential confounders were collected by questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis revealed an independent effect of peri-/postmenopausal status and depressed mood on the manifestation of hot flushes. Analysis results for night sweats were significant for age, depressed mood and current smoking at p<0.05 while, of all input parameters, only age and depressed mood were significant predictors of palpitations. Logistic regression also revealed the effect of sport and depressed mood on dizzy spells. Depressed women, (B=0.677) and those who did not participate in sporting activities (B= -0.969) suffered more often from dizzy spells. Pins and needles in hands and feet were influenced by peri-/postmenopausal status (B=1.036), by higher numbers of pregnancy (B=0.260) and depressed mood (B=0.505). Potentially modifiable factors, such as current smoking, lack of sport, depressed mood and the number of pregnancies can predispose a woman to a higher prevalence of some of these physiological menopausal symptoms.
Julia Pápai, Zsófia Tróznai, Tamás Szabó and Attila Szabó
The study focused on the peculiarities of fat accumulation during maturation. The main purpose of the study was trifold: to detect the alterations in fat gain during breast maturation; to examine fat accumulation after physiological maturation and the influence of breast maturation and sport activity on fatness. The subjects were athlete (N=1428) and non-athlete (N=1030) girls. They were grouped by the stages of breast development. Fat accumulation was followed up until four years after menarche. Regional fat distribution was examined on the basis of skinfolds taken at triceps, scapula, abdomen and thigh. Progressing with breast development, body fat percent increased in both groups, though in non-athletes a decrease was found in stage B4. During sexual maturation the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased on the extremities and increased on the trunk. Non-athletes stored more fat on their upper trunk, while athletes did it on their lower trunk. After menarche the differences between athlete and non-athlete girls were preserved. In conclusion it may be stated that during sexual maturation the regional apposition trend of body fat was similar for athletes and non-athletes. The differences emerged in the relative distributions. Athlete girls accumulated proportionally more fat on their lower body, representing better the female-type distribution of body fat than non-athlete girls.
Joanna Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Anna Siniarska, Aneta Sikorska and Sławomir Kozieł
The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between physique, maturation and some environmental factors. The study was conducted in Warsaw, between 2012 and 2013 in randomly selected schools. The material included 171 girls, aged 12-20 years. Body height and weight, upper and lower extremity length, subcutaneous fat folds on arm, subscapular and abdominal, circumferences of arm, chest, waist and hip were measured. Body proportion indices were calculated. The questionnaire form provided information on parental education and profession, and the number of children in family. Girls were asked about age at menarche, number of daily meals, level of physical activity, participation is sport, and level of stress at home and at school. The principal component analysis was applied and 4 factors were extracted from the set of living condition characteristics (F1 - Parental education & father’s occupation, F2 - Mother’s occupation and the number of children, F3 - Stress, F4 - Physical activity and number of daily meals). Regression analysis allowed to evaluate the association of body build characteristics and age at menarche with the four factors. Factor 1 and 4 were the only ones which showed a statistically significant association with body build. The results showed that girls who were taller, with smaller arm and waist circumferences and less adiposity came from families with higher parental education and better father’s profession. Taller stature, longer legs and less adiposity characterized girls who were more physically active and consumed more than three meals a day.
Anna Burdukiewicz, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Justyna Andrzejewska and Aleksandra Stachoń
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Anna Pastuszak, Michał Górski, Jan Gajewski and Krzysztof Buśko
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