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Beata Ślusarczyk, Muhammad Haseeb and Hafezali Iqbal Hussain
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Industry 4.0 has important elements, such as big data, cyber-physical systems (CPS), the interoperability, the Internet of Things (IoT) and a smart city. The industrial revolution is mostly based on these five factors. However, the current study examined the effect of three major factors, namely, CPS, the interoperability and a smart city (a smartfactory, a smart product) on the production and services of textile companies in Malaysia. These three elements of Industry 4
Renata Stasiak-Betlejewska, Luminita Parv and Wojciech Gliń
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Bożena Gajdzik, Beata Oleksiak, Pavlína Pustějovská and Markéta Tkadlečková
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business management, and involve a development of smartfactories that communicate in real time via the Internet of Things in an ecosystem composed of machinery, a network of factories, and people ( Kagermann et al., 2013 ). Cloud technologies and the ability to perform an intelligent analysis of large data volumes also enable the integration of value chains, both vertical — occurring inside companies — and horizontal — involving other market participants ( Jarocka and Wang, 2018 ; Saucedo-Martínez et al., 2017 ). This phenomenon has a direct impact on the changes in
). Secondly, the particular integrations are joined by concepts of smartfactories, smart product, new business models and new customer services ( Qin et al., 2016 ). Thirdly, there are several leading technological solutions with a major impact on production and services: Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), big data analytics, cloud computing, autonomous machines, simulations, augmented reality, IoT etc. ( Pan et al., 2015 ; Kolberg & Zühlke, 2015 ), where the use of all of such technologies leads towards further digitisation and computerisation of production, service and