people have to be able to do business with each other across all the particularities of content and background” ( Taylor, 2011 , p. 83). He argues that a homogeneous culture seems to be “… an undeniable feature of modern-market, growth-oriented, industrial economies, embedded as they are in bureaucratic polities …” ( Taylor, 2011 , p. 83). Even more, “… the modern state economy can’t help fostering in his homogenization of identity and allegiance that it must nourish for its survival” ( Taylor, 2011 , p. 90). “That is why those states try to inculcate patriotism and to
macroeconomic tools such as monetary and fiscal policies are being already used and have their limits, structural reforms appear as a crucial ingredient for boosting economic growth and employment. This paper contributes to the debate by evaluating the effect of product and labor market deregulation on the unemployment rate.
The economy-wide product market regulation (PMR) index computed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is used to estimate the level of regulation in 24 European countries Twenty-one countries from the European Union (EU
Tranaes, 2005 ; Lentz, 2009 ; Centeno and Novo, 2014 ).
Finally, some papers look at the design of unemployment insurance (UI) when hand-to-mouth jobless people can have access to informal jobs. Alvarez-Parra and Sanchez (2009) study the optimal time profile of UB when job search effort and in-work effort in the hidden labor market are private information and perfect substitutes. A key result of their paper is that at the start of the spell, the optimal level of UB should be generous enough to deter participation to the hidden economy. Gonzalez-Rozada and Ruffo
distribution of insurance in an economy.
In this paper, we directly approach the potential costs, inefficiencies, and inequities of aiding family members. We examine parental behavior in the year that an adult, non-residential child experiences an unemployment spell. Using the 1985-2013 waves ofthe Panel Study on Income Dynamics, a longitudinal dataset that allows for parent-child linkages across households within the same wave of the survey, we measure the concurrent changes to the parent’s consumption, income, and savings during child’s unemployment. Due to quality
Xuan Wei, Gülcan Önel, Zhengfei Guan and Fritz Roka
wage inequality among natives in the United States. Simulating the change of supply economy using a 14-sector nested computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, Watson et al. (2012) found that a reduction of the less-educated immigrant labor supply will only modestly increase the demand for less-educated native workers, while causing a reduction in the state gross domestic product (GDP) as well as the total economic output in Idaho. Cattaneo et al. (2013) found similar evidence in European countries that the inflow of immigrants over the period of 1995 through
abroad, asylum seekers (waiting register) and persons without legal residency are not included in the sample (FPS Economy, Directorate General Statistics and Economic Information). As a result, our findings extrapolate only to the migrants who eventually do get a temporary or permanent residence permit (or in the case of asylum seekers, got recognized as a refugee), and not to the ones who do not.
Second, on the basis of the data from the participating social security institution, detailed quarterly information on the socioeconomic position is available. Depending
potential threat to the validity of identification was the 2007–2009 financial crisis that could have had consequences for the employment and fertility behavior of the population. The empirical evidence suggests that the German economy, unlike the economies of other European countries, did not suffer long-term consequences of the crisis. On the contrary, Weber and Weber (2013) reported a decrease in unemployment rates during the period 2006– 2011. Raute (2019) found no shift in fertility behavior due to the economic crisis.
The parental leave reform coincided with
In general, the term overeducation refers to a job match in which the educational level of the worker clearly exceeds the educational requirements of the job. In the terminology of labor economics, this is often considered a vertical skill mismatch, as opposed to horizontal mismatches (workers choosing jobs with requirements outside the scope of their field of study/apprenticeship). A widespread occurrence of this phenomenon can seriously impair the competitiveness of an economy. From a macroeconomic perspective, an overeducation status of
prospects do not necessarily decrease. However, many recent papers claim employment prospects are diminished, and it could be having an aggregate effect on the economy. Schmitt and Warner (2011) estimate that the ex-offender population lowered the male employment rate in 2008 by 1.5 to 1.7 percentage points, costing the United States about $57–$65 billion. A more recent paper by Abraham and Kearney (2018) used 2014 NLSY97 data as a proxy to estimate that there are 5.13 million working age individuals with a prior prison term of more than 2 years and that the 2016
δ N = 0.07. And in any case we need to have δ C + δ N = 0.07.
As explained above, our calibrated model matches several relevant moments about the US economy in year 2012. Specifically, we match overall GDP and the structure of wages and employment in terms of education, age and documentation status. Now, we turn to the results of our simulation. In terms of outcomes, we first quantify the effects of DACA on GDP and later turn to the effects on the wage structure, emphasizing the effects on the wages of the individuals gaining