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Word, Action, and Entrepreneurship

REFERENCES Arnold, R. A. (2004), Economics (Mason, OH: South-Western). Ayers, R. M. and Collinge, R. A. (2004), Economics: Explore and Apply (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall). Bastiat, Frédéric (1851), Harmonies économiques (2nd ed. Paris: Guillaumin). Block, W. (1983), ‘Public Goods and Externalities: The Case of Roads’, Journal of Libertarian Studies , 7 (1), 1–34. Boettke, P. J. and Leeson, P. T. (2004), ‘Liberalism, Socialism, and Robust Political Economy’, Journal of Markets & Morality , 7 (1), 99

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Menger’s Anti-Historical Method Versus the Neoclassical Anti-Historical Method

Socialism” Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 6:2. Bylund, Per L.; G.P Manish. 2017. “Private Property and Economic Calculation: A Reply to Andy Denis” Review of Political Economy , Vol. 29, No. 3. Clark, Gregory. 2007. A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World . Princeton University Press. Denis, Andy. 2015. “Economic Calculation: Private Property or Several Control” Review of Political Economy 27(4). Friedman, Milton. 1953. “Methodology of Positive Economics” in: Essays in Positive Economics . Chicago: University of

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How Firms Can Hedge Against Market Risk

References Arrow, K. J. (1965). The theory of risk aversion. Aspects of the Theory of Risk Bearing , Helsinki: Academic Bookstores. Baird, A. J. (1998). Rynek opcji. Strategie inwestycyjne i analiza ryzyka . Warszawa: Dom Wydawniczy ABC. Battermann, H.L., Braulke, M., Broll, U., Schimmelpfennig, J. (2000). The preferred hedge instrument. Economics Letters , 66, 85–91. Black, F., Scholes, M. (1973). The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities. Journal of Political Economy , 81 (3), 637–654. Detemple, J.B., Adler, M. (1988). Hedging with

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The Application of Lean Management in the Management of the Psychiatric Care System in the Regional Model of Psychiatric Care in Denmark (the Region of Zealand)


The aim of the article is to present the application of the lean management method as appropriate for the management of the organizational system of psychiatric care in the Zealand region of Denmark. The organizational solutions of the Danish psychiatric care system presented in this paper are individualized and adapted to the regional needs of the residents. In Denmark, there are five administrative regions, in which each independently organizes its own system of medical (psychiatric) care. This means that the regions have considerable independence in choosing the acceptable and necessary methods of management, including – as is clear from the conducted research – the use of methods put-upon other areas of economy. Although the national laws in Denmark define certain conditions and guidelines for the functioning of psychiatric care (e.g. regarding the use of direct coercion/restrains for patients treated in the centres), there is a distinct separation of structures and methods of functioning throughout the whole country, which constitutes unique observation material – from the cognitive point of view. The authors of this paper conduct extensive research and analyse the systems of psychiatric care organizations in various countries (including Spain, Italy and Japan) and, as a result, the obtained results may lead to the selection of the best models from other systems (good organizational practices and management, the management methods in use), which can be applied in the currently reorganised system of the Polish psychiatric care. The choice of Denmark for the observational study is not accidental and is related not only to the fact that there is a large degree of systemic identity within the country and between the regions, but also because the country applies solutions addressed to patients with very different cultural conditions and needs, resulting from their descent, religion, and (world)-views. Denmark is one of those European countries that express a significant acceptance of diversity and tolerance, which is why communities with very different imponderables, denominations, and worldviews co-exist. In the area related to the organization of the psychiatric system, these conditions are of key importance. In the period from January 2015 to December 2017 the authors participated in study visits in Denmark, conducting research aimed at identifying the key success factors of the psychiatric care organization system in the country. The conducted analysis is also based on the analysis of literature and own and participant observations. The conclusions concerning this subject are also the result of interviews conducted with employees of the visited hospitals and system users, both professionals and patients. As the search for an optimal organizational model of psychiatric care is currently an ongoing concern in Poland, it seems justified to review the existing solutions in Europe and perform their critical analysis. A comparison of the adopted solutions was performed, in the context of, above all, the improvement of the quality of these services, their availability, and the satisfaction of patients and their families from the proposed organizational changes. The economic benefits of these solutions are also significant.

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The Anti-Naturalistic Legacy of Menger and Mises

Knight of Liberalism . Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Jaffé, W. (1976). Menger, Jevons and Walras De-Homogenised. Economic Inquiry, 14(1), 511–524. Lachmann, L. (1977). The Significance of the Austrian School of Economic in the History of Ideas. In L. Lachmann, Capital, Expectations, and the Market Process: Essays on the Theory of the Market Economy (pp. 45–64). Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, Inc. Machaj, M., (2015). Marginal Unit vs. Marginal Unit – Some Additional Thoughts on the Differences between Menger, Jevons, and Walras

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(3):353-+. Romer, T. and Rosenthal, H. (1979). Bureaucrats Versus Voters: On the Political Economy of Resource Allocation by Direct Democracy. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 93(4):563-587. Zubek, R. (2011). Negative agenda control and executive-legislative relations in east central europe, 1997-2008. The Journal of Legislative Studies, 17(2):172-192.

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Austrian Economics and the Evolutionary Paradigm*

Selection: Essays on Biological Evolution and the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jones, R. A. 1976. “The Origin and Development of Media of Exchange.” Journal of Political Economy 84: 757–775. Kirzner, I. 1982. “Uncertainty, Discovery, and Human Action: A Study of the Entrepreneurial Profile in the Misesian System.” In Method, Process, and Austrian Economics , edited by I. Kirzner, 139–159. Lexington: D. C. Heath. Kresge, S., and L. Wenar. 1994. Hayek on Hayek: An Autobiographical Dialogue. London: Routledge

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The Austrian School of Economics and Ordoliberalism – Socio-Economic Order

school and the Hayekian challenge. The Review of Austrian Economics , 26(2). Willgerodt, H., Peacock, A. (1989). German Liberalism and Economic Revival . In: H. Willgerodt, A. Peacock (Eds.), Germany’s Social Market Economy: Origins and Evolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1007/978–1–349–20145–7

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. Gordon R.J., Does the “New Economy” Measure up to the Great Inventions of the Past?, “The Journal of Economic Perspectives”, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2000. Gorzelak G., Polska polityka regionalna wobec zrożnicowań polskiej przestrzeni, [in:] Bondyra K., Szczepański M., Śliwa P. (eds): Państwo, samorząd i społeczności lokalne, Poznań: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Bankowej, 2005. Grandinetti E., L’evoluzione delle imprese lider nel distretto della sedia di Manzano, [in:] Economia e Managment, No. 8, 1998. Grandinetti R., Tabacco R

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Ludwig Lachmann and the Austrians

: 10.1007/s11138–014–0267–7 Böhm-Bawerk, Eugen, von (1959), Capital and Interest (3 vols in 1), South Holland: Libertarian Press. Grinder, W. E. (1977a), Capital, Expectations and the Market Process, Essays on the Theory of the Market Economy , Kansas City: Sheed, Adrews and McMeel. Grinder, W. E. (1977b), ‘In Pursuit of the Subjective Paradigm’ in Walter E. Grinder (ed.) (1977a), 3–24. Hayek, F.A. (1933), Monetary Theory and the Trade Cycle , London: Jonathan Cape. Hayek, F.A. (1933b), ‘Price Expectations, Monetary Disturbances and

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