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The European Union has passed a complicated period. Its economy lags not only behind its own development goals, but in many developing indicators, it lags well behind the results achieved by its economic partners and competitors, the USA and Japan. Due to the lower competitiveness in the international market environment there are growing problems in the domestic labour market. For a long time, many EU countries demonstrated relatively high unemployment leading subsequently to weakening the income situation of households and consequently to social tensions in society. The labor market situations of young graduates and also people approaching retirement age and seniors are particularly worrying. In the context of such arguments the strategy of perspective development of the European Union 2020 known as the EUROPE 2020 strategy was born. Its essence is the formulation of objectives and procedures to enable to “build in the area of the EU the strongest and most effective economic grouping of the world, able to absorb and eliminate negative stimuli from the external market environment in order to protect the quality of life of its inhabitants.“ According to J. Barroso, Europe 2020 is “the strategy for growth for the future decades, which must ensure building the European Union as an area of knowledge based, constantly growing and inclusively functioning economy“. The paper confronts the EU strategic objectives of 2020 with the current economic and social conditions under the EU and Slovakia´s environment as a precondition for their successful fulfillment. The situation in the current Slovak labour market is used as a pointer to the neglected national labour policy tools, which could create significant barriers in realization of the EU 2020 goals. The initially presented data will be used for building the econometric model enabling the in-depth analysis of relation between the explanatory variables and the newly generated economic and social parameters in the EU and Slovakia.
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The idea that builds on the recognition that the Earth is a finite world, the resources are not endless, and thus the vision of continuous growth cannot be sustained can be traced back to the 1960s. Global problems had already occurred by then, and trends calculated from the data indicated a rapid disaster for the future. Humanity is at crossroads, and even the directions are still unclear. In the mid-1980s, an increasingly ecological approach appeared in politics, development policy, and international institutions.
Development of society is based on the existence of food resources. During the modern technogenic era, mankind needs to find a compromise between growing needs for the food and limitation of resources. Many countries still cannot use the world experience which effectively ensures food safety. Development of strategically important branches of agriculture and formation of laws according to which the basic food has to be made within the country by forces of its own producers has to become the condition of the problem solution. In Russia, a certain reserve in achievement of threshold values ensuring food safety of the state is already created. At the same time, the problem direction is the production of meat and milk. Among priorities there has to be a creation of modern infrastructure in order to decrease the storage expenses, transportation, and production realization. The agrarian policy of the Russian Federation has to be focused on the system management, including scientific, staffing and financial support, institutional modernization, the application of global experience, and also super-compliance of the economic agents’ rights.
The experiments aimed at the comparison of the growth and production parameters of sorghum with other field crops were established in the experimental workplaces CVRV-VÚA in Milhostov. In the course of favourable meteorological factors, the slowest initial development of vegetation height and dynamics of biomass accretion was observed in sorghum. From 15th August, however, sorghum accretion intensity significantly exceeded all the monitored field crops. The total cost of the cultivation of sorghum for silage accounted for 870.34 € ha-1 and of maize for silage 861.36 € ha-1. The difference resulted from different levels of material costs. In the experiment, the harvested amount reached 62.70 t ha-1 for sorghum silage and 54.20 t ha-1 for maize (33% moisture). At these yield and silage costs 33 € t-1, sorghum achieved a profit of 1198.76 € ha-1 without subsidy, while maize achieved a profit of 927.24 € ha-1. The yields exceeding 26.37 t ha-1 for sorghum and 26.10 t ha-1 for maize would be sufficient to achieve profits.
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