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The Political Culture; Politicial Socialization and Acculturation

Abstract

In this article, the author, after having comparatively analyzed senses and significations of the concept of politic culture, as stated by several renowned authors in the world of science, proceeds to a differentiation of general political culture from those political cultures that are integrated into the lives of contemporary political agents (subcultures, political countercultures, marginal cultures, political cultures of public policy makers etc.) which coexist on the territory of a state.

Using praxeological and systemic approaches, the author discusses the place and role of contemporary ideologies in their quality as a directional and dynamogenic factor in political practices, as well as political socialization and acculturation as methods of reproducing and developing political culture in accordance with the necessities imposed by the global development of society and by its subsystems. The formation of a solid political culture, through education and communication in general, both at individual and at social level, conditions the maturation of democracy, and the launching of public policies likely to solve individual and community issues.

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Unilateral Enforcement of Un Security Council Resolutions: The Case of Operation Iraqi Freedom

Abstract

The prohibition of armed aggression under Article 2(2) of the United Nations Charter is one of the most important developments in international law and international relations in the modern era. The fact that the right to wage war is no longer accepted as falling within the sovereignty of the state has ushered in an appreciably stable international order based on the rule of law and not the rule of might. While states obviously still engage in warfare and numerous wars have been fought by states in the era of the UN, the very fact that the prohibition of armed aggression has assumed universal acceptance as customary international law is a notable achievement. In spite of the prohibition of armed aggression under the UN Charter, self-defence and collective action mandated by the UN Security Council serve as notable exceptions. The US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 (i.e. Operation Iraqi Freedom) was peculiar because, the justification for the invasion hinged on the enforcement of UN Security Council Resolutions. This justification thus brought to the fore whether, under international law, there was the right to unilaterally enforce Security Council Resolutions. In the current resurgence of unilateralism typified by the US Trumpled withdrawal or threat of withdrawal from multilateral systems of international governance and cooperation, it is important to reiterate the lessons of unilateralism epitomized by the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the instabilities that have become offshoots of this invasion – e.g. the creation of monsters like the so-called Islamic State. This article discusses the resort to unilateralism under the guise of enforcing UN Security Council resolutions. It also engages in a brief discussion on the justifications for war prior to the UN Charter and the provisions on the use of force prescribed in the Charter. It uses the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 as a case study to shed light on legality of unilateral enforcement of UN Security Council Resolutions.

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Decision-Making in the International Monetary Fund: Implications for Sovereign Equality of States

: Evaluations of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 12. Garritsen de Vries, M. (1996). The Bretton Woods Conference and the Birth of the International Monetary Fund, in Orin Kirshner (ed.), The Bretton Woods- GATT System: Retrospect and Prospect After Fifty Years, M. E. Sharpe Inc, New York, pp.3-18. 13. Gianviti, F. (1999). Decision-Making in the International Monetary Fund’, in Current Developments in Monetary and Financial Law, Vol.1, Legal Department of the IMF

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Transfer Prices Implication Upon Tax System. The Romanian Experience

? International Transfer Pricing Journal, September/October 2014, pp. 331 – 346. 8. Rossing, C.P. & Pearson, T. (2014), Transfer Pricing Knowledge Management Systems, International Transfer Pricing Journal, July/August 2014, pp. – 264 – 274. 9. Sim, S. (2013), Transfer pricing Issues in Financial Services, Asia – Pacific Tax Bulletin, May/June 2013, pp. 215 – 218. 10. Gouthiere, B. (2015), Recent Transfer Pricing Developments, European Taxation, February/March 2015, pp. 47 – 54. 11. *** Legea nr. 571/2003 privind Codul fiscal, cu modificările si

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CEDAW in the Eyes of the United States

CEDAW: A Look at Purported Problems with Ratification”, Michigan State University , 2005. 4. Christina Sommers, “Feminism by Treaty” Policy Review no. 167, (2011) 37-50. 5. David Auerswald, and Maltzman Forrest, “Policymaking Through Advice and Consent: Treaty Consideration by the United States Senate.” Journal of Politics , Vol. 65 (4), 2003. 6. Devaki Jain, Women, Development, and the UN: A Sixty-Year Quest for Equality and Justice , Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005. 7. “Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U

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Cross-National Comparative Study on Legal Education and Admission to Practice Between China, India and Pakistan

Profession, 8(1), 11-21. 5. Asian Development Bank (ADB). (2000). Law and Policy Reforms 6. Baskir, C. E. (2012). Crossing Borders: Creating an American Law Clinic in China. 7. Blue, R., Hoffman, R., & Berg, L.-A. (2008). Pakistan Rule of Law Assessment-Final Report. Prepared for the USAID/Pakistan by Management System International. Washington D C. 8. Braibanti, R. (1999). Cornelius of Pakistan: Catholic chief justice of a Muslim state. Islam and Christian‐Muslim Relations, 10(2), 117-157. 9

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Avoiding Double Taxation Through The Assessment of International Tax Treties. Case: ESP’s versus Anaf Braşov

the common system of taxation applicable in the case of parent companies and subsidiaries of different Member States. 5. Council of Europe Directive EC/48/2003 of 3 June 2003 on the taxation of savings income in the form of interest payments. 6. Hubfauer, G.C. (1975). A Guide to Law and Policy, US Taxation of Mexican Business Abroad, American Enterprise Institute, Hoover Institution. 7. Kosters, B. (2004). The United Nations Model Tax Convention and its Recent Developments, Asia – Pacific Tax Bulletin, ½. 8. McIntyre, M.J. (2005). Developing

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Legitimation of the Referendum - the Standard Mechanism of Participatory Democracy

. 292 [20] For details, L. F. Uşvat, European Referendum, in the International Academic Conference on Law, Politics & Management, p. 92, The International Institute for Academic Development, Batumi, Georgia, 2015 [21] P. de Visscher, Le plébiscite international, in La participation directe du citoyen à la vie politique et administrative”, Bruylant Publishing House, Bruxelles, 1986, p. 139 [22] Idem [23] Celotto A., Regional and Local People Consultation through Referendum, Perspectives on Federalism, Vol. 4, Issue 1, 2012, p. 12

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The Developement of EU Customs Law: From The Community Customs Code to The Union Customs Code

and P Minor, „Trade Facilitation Indicators: The Impact on Trade Costs‟ (2011) 3. OECD Trade Policy Working Papers, No. 118. 4. OECD, „Quantitative assessment of the benefits of trade facilitation‟ (2003) <TD/TC/ WP(2003)31/FINAL> accessed 6 August 2012 5. OECD Policy Brief October 2005, „The costs and benefits of trade facilitation‟ 6. B Rukanova, E Van stijn, H Henriksen, Z Baida, Y.H Tan, „Understanding the influence of multiple levels of governments on the development of interorganizational systems

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