The article assesses the recent canonization of Junípero Serra, Spanish Franciscan missionary and founder of the California mission system. I begin by introducing the priest and outlining the genesis of his assignment. I then discuss the model of missions’ operation and problematize their results. The rise of Serra’s legend is situated within the historical context of California’s “fantasy heritage”. I later outline the chief arguments and metaphors mobilized by the Church in support of the new saint. In the central part of the essay, I address and critically examine the ramifications of a document Serra authored and which the Church took as the priest’s passport to sainthood. I argue that the document inaugurated the epistemic and social divides in California and, marking the Indian as homo sacer (Agamben), paved the way to the Indigenous genocide in the mission and American eras. Following this, I offer a semiological (after Barthes and Lakoff) interpretation of the canonization as a modern myth, argue that metaphors invoked in support of the priest inverted the historical role played by Serra and, finally, ponder the moral ramifications of this canonization.
In this paper, I shall examine the complements of perception verbs in Old English involving a noun phrase and a present participle. What kind of perception is described by these structures? Do they evoke the perception of an event, or that of an entity? It will be shown here that there are good reasons to believe that an NP + present participle sequence could function as the equivalent of the traditional “AcI” construction when used with perception verbs. I shall also attempt to determine to what extent the syntax of this construction matches the semantics: is the internal argument of the perception verb the NP alone, or some kind of combination of the NP and the participle? This question is particularly interesting in the light of Declerck’s (1982) remarks on participle perception verb complements in modern English. Finally, I shall take a look at morphological parametres: sometimes the participle inflects to agree with the NP, whereas on other occasions it does not. What might the implications of this kind of variation be?
The Bases of Derivation of Old English Affixed Nouns: Status and Category
The aim of this journal article is to carry out a complete analysis of the category, status and patterns of the bases of derivation of Old English affixal nouns. The results of the analysis are discussed in the light of the evolution from stem-formation to word-formation. The corpus of analysis of this research is based on data retrieved from the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which contains 30170 predicates. 16694 out of these are nouns, of which 4115 are basic and 12579 qualify as non-basic. Within non-basic nouns there are 3488 affixed nouns (351 by prefixation and 3137 by suffixation) and 9091 compound nouns. The line of argumentation is that, under certain circumstances, the existence of more than one base available for the formation of a derivative does not reinforce the explanation of invariable bases; on the contrary, it goes in the direction of variable bases produced by inflectional processes and made ready for derivation. The following conclusions are reached. In the first place, the importance is underlined of formations on stems in Old English, involving, at least, nouns. Secondly, the analysis evidences that the importance of stem-formation in Old English might be higher than has been acknowledged by previous studies. If Old English made extensive use of words as bases of derivation, a single base should be available; if, on the contrary, Old English is still dependent on stem-formation, more than one base is likely to be found for a single derivative. Such alternative bases of derivation reflect stemformation that may result from inflectional means and be eventually used for derivational purposes.
John Wilkins’s Mercury or the Secret and Swift Messenger: Showing How a Man May with Privacy and Speed Communicate His Thoughts to a Friend at Any Distance was first published in 1641. As a book on cryptography presenting a variety of secret means of communication at a distance it seems to have appeared at just the right time, when the biblical curse of the confusion of tongues was doubled by the curse of political confusion on the brink of the English civil war. However, the book seems to be more than just a detailed account of methods of secret writing; its topic gives the author a chance to present his views on language which he would later develop in his life’s work An Essay towards Real Character and a Philosophical Language published in 1668. The Essay had received much greater critical attention than the early pamphlet, which is usually referred to as merely a prelude to an account of his universal language project. Indeed, in the little book on cryptography, Wilkins already demonstrated his awareness of the conventional character of language and its role within the system of human interactions, as well as advertised a project of philosophical language that would enhance communication between all nations and remedy the curse of Babel. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the value of the pamphlet lies also in the insight that it gives into the seventeenth-century debates on the nature of language and into arguments which were often provided, in equal measure, by theology, Hermetic lore, mythology, literature and early modern science. Wilkins’s meticulous recording of the contradictory views and propositions on language produces a sense of methodological inconsistency that leads to ambiguities and paradoxes. However, in the medley of concepts and the collection of linguistic “curiosities” that Mercury presents, a careful reader will discern the growing mistrust of language as a means of representing reality and as a foundation of knowledge, which was one of the symptoms of the general crisis of representation leading to an epistemological shift that started in the seventeenth century.
Anderson, John M. 1970 “’Ablaut’ in the synchronic phonology of the Old English strong verb”, Indogermanische Forschungen 75: 166-97. 1984 Case grammar and the lexicon . University of Ulster: Occasional Papers on Linguistics and Language Learning , 10. 1997 A notional theory of syntactic categories . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1998 “A core morphology for Old English verbs”, English Language and Linguistics 2: 199-222. 2005 “The argument structure of morphological causatives”, Poznań Studies in
. The Chaucer Review 35. 399-412.
Palmer, Frank Robert. 2001. Mood and modality, 2nd edn. (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics). Cambridge, etc.: Cambridge University Press.
Salmi-Tolonen, Tarja. 2005. Persuasion in judicial argumentation: The opinions of the advocates general at the European Court of Justice. In: Helena Halmari & Tuija Virtanen (eds.), Persuasion across genres: A linguistic approach (Pragmatics and Beyond New Series 130), 59-101. Amsterdam & Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
of verb argument structure”, Cognition 41: 153-195.
Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy - Roberta Michnick Golinkoff (eds.) 2006 Action meets word: How children learn verbs . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Holmquist, Jonathan (ed.) 2007 Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics . Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Hu, Hsiao-Ping 2007 “Natural Second Language Acquisition or pidginization? Present tense verb usage by adult Chinese speakers of Spanish in Guayaquil, Ecuador”, in: Jonathan Holmquist
, Javier E. (ed.) 2002 A changing world of words: Studies in English historical lexicography, lexicology and semantics. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Goldberg, Adele 1995 A construction grammar approach to argument structure. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Guerssel, Mohamed - Kenneth Hale - Mary Laughren - Beth Levin - Josie White Eagle 1985 "A cross-linguistic study of transitivity alternations". Papers from the Parasession on Causatives and Agentivity. Chicago Linguistic Society: 48-63.
. 1979. Principles of diachronic syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lightfoot, David. 1991. How to set paremeters: Arguments from language change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lightfoot, David. 1997. Shifting triggers and diachronic reanalyses. In Ans van Kemenade, & Nigel Vincent (eds.), Parameters of morphosyntactic change, 253-272. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lightfoot, David. 2006. How new languages emerge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mitchell, Bruce. 1968. A guide to Old
Keyser. 2002. Prolegomenon to a theory of argument structure (Linguistic Inquiry Monographs 39). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Halle, Morris & Jean-Roger Vergnaud. 1987. An essay on stress (Current Studies in Linguistics 15). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Heggie, Lorie, A. 1988. The syntax of copular clauses . Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of South California.
Heusinger, Klaus von. 2002. Specificity and definiteness in sentence and discourse structure. Journal of Semantics 19(3). 254–274.
Heycock, Caroline & Anthony Kroch. 1999