Having an enormous importance not only in one’s quality of life, but also in one’s health and personal safety, the olfactory function assessment has begun to gain more and more interest amongst the ENT practitioners. However, at the moment, there is no worldwide accepted evaluation protocol available despite the fact that studies regarding smell disorders and their evaluation have been published all over the world.
The purpose of this article is to present the olfactory assessment methods practiced today not only in different clinics from Europe and the USA, but also in Romania, because we have recently started to study the olfactory function disturbances. Three of the most interesting clinical cases, assessed in our ENT Department of the “Sfanta Maria” Clinical Hospital between 2015 and 2016, will be discussed in the current paper.
In recent years, the clinical importance of laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) has been recognized. This method of investigation proved itself to be a valuable and indispensable tool regarding voice disorder management and requires multidisciplinary approach.
In this article, we focus on the clinical usefulness of LEMG to assess inferior and superior motor neuron integrity by recording action potentials generated by muscle fibers of the larynx in the new field known as neurolaryngology. To facilitate the clinical application of this electrophysiologic test, we present a detailed description of LEMG techniques, which were applied for simultaneous bilateral recordings of the thyroarytenoid, cricothyroid and posterior cricoarytenoid muscles. Also, we analysed and measured the following electrophysiological parameters: 1) insertional activity; 2) spontaneous activity; 3) recruitment; 4) morphology of waveform.
From a practical point of view, in our country, LEMG performance is still not a routine procedure in ENT and Phoniatric Departments. The difficulty of practical use of LEMG in Romania consists in technical limitations and it depends on the physician’s experience regarding the examination technique and also the interpretation of electrophysiological results.
Our current clinical experience shows that the use of LEMG contributes especially to the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients with neurolaryngological disorders.
Head trauma is considered to be the third cause of olfactory function disorders. Olfactometric assessment in patients accusing anosmia following head injury produced by car accident or aggression is important, because most of them are involved in law trials in order to obtain financial compensations from the author. It is compulsory to use both subjective and objective olfactory evaluation methods combined with a detailed anamnesis, a complete ENT examination and a good cranio-facial imaging (computed tomography or MRI) in order to exclude malingerers and to obtain an accurate diagnosis.
“Sfanta Maria” ENT Department from Bucharest is the only center in Romania where the olfactory function in completely investigated. We use chemosensory (Snap and Sniff Test and n-Butanol Dynamic Olfactometry) and electrophysiological tests (electric olfactory evoked potentials of the olfactory bulb).
Unfortunately, we confront with a series of difficulties in what concerns the smell function evaluation: 1) there is scarce information in the literature regarding the olfactory electric evoked potentials; 2) the electric olfactory evoked potentials register only the electrical activity in the olfactory bulb; 3) in case of olfactory impairment medically confirmed, we cannot establish a cause-effect relationship between the disturbance and the event; 4) the most accurate electrophysiological assessment method currently available in Europe is the time-frequency analysis of chemosensory event-related potentials, but we do not dispose of the necessary equipment yet; 5) sometimes patients do not give us the informed consent for a complete olfactory evaluation.
BACKGROUND. In present days, there are described many reconstruction techniques for nasal post-traumatic and post-excision total defects, from simple suture to microsurgical free transfer in nasal reconstruction. It is important to follow the defect dimensions, its topography and also its etiology. The nasal aesthetic subunits principle is very important in aesthetic and functional reconstruction of a nasal defect.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. The clinical study from this paper was realised on the patients admitted in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Emergency Clinical Hospital from Bucharest, between 2012 and 2013. Different determinant factors were studied for the success of nasal reconstruction. It was compared the difference between the reconstruction of the whole nasal subunit, based on aesthetic subunits principle, and the reconstruction of the defect.
RESULTS. Although in our clinic the reconstruction of the defect is used in the majority of the cases and rarely the reconstruction based on aesthetic subunits principle, very good results were obtained, with a reduced number of complication and very few relapses.
CONCLUSION. The success of the reconstruction depends on multiple factors regarding the type of the defect. The grafts can give very good results in all aesthetic subunits, while the nasogenian flap has good results for the reconstruction of the nasal wing and lobule defects. The frontal flap is the first option for reconstruction of the dorsum nasi with satisfactory results. This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/159/1.5/137390
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