The article is devoted to the anniversary of Professor Viktor Krupa – the known Slovak ethnographer and linguist. The object of the analysis was the name of one of the most popular books of Hero of the day – Za siedmimi morami („Over the seven seas“), which seems to be characteristic for the author’s biography. This excpression is included in the Slavic proverbs and sayings with the concept of „sea“. In this case, although the idiom za siedmimi morami is not fixed by any phrasebook or by the majority of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries of the Slovak language, it is widely known in colloquial speech and is often used in modern Slovak literature and the media. In the cited contexts, the expression retains its folk stylistic flavor, which often emphasizes the typical folk-poetic speech „increments“ to its meaning and rhythm, reinforcing the semantics of „remoteness“: za siedmimi ostrovmi a za siedmimi morami, za siedmimi horami a siedmimi morami etc. This variation suggested by the presence of Slovak folklore explicate version of our expression, where the numerical component of the „seven“ is replaced by „nine“ – za deviatimi horami, za siedmimi morami.
Expression za siedmimi morami is one of the many „sea“ – sayings and proverbs recorded in the Slovak language. Each of them has its own distribution area, and its own history, sometimes going back to the ancient European cultural heritage. And in all of them reflect the semantics of infinite space, symbolized by component more („sea“), which created also the idiom za siedmimi morami.
Linguistic analysis of the expression on the background of its Slavic correspondences shows that it has deep folkloric and mythological roots in the Slavic and Indo-European world. This ancient symbolism was explicated in the title of one of the many books of Professor Victor Krupa.
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The article deals with the problems of idioms production and perception related to the foresign forms emergence of information accumulation and storage contained in the cognitive-based derivation of phraseme building. It is suggested that presign stage of the semiosis process and the phraseme understanding is a cognitive model that precedes not only the formation of the phraseme semantic structure, but its perception. Since the cognitive model of phrasemic semiosis is a diagram of discursive meaning embodiment and discourse itself is form of its indirectly derivative existence, there is a need to show how the cognitive-discursive mechanisms of phraseme building is associated with foresign forms of sense accumulation and storage.
This study attempts to explore the difficulties that Arab EFL learners of English encounter in the use of five verbs of senses when used as copulas, main verbs, main verbs with a metaphorical use, and as parts of idioms. A questionnaire consisting of three parts was specially designed to elicit the necessary data for this study at the levels of recognition and production. The subjects of the study were 30 randomly selected senior English major university students. The results of the study show that the students encountered tangible difficulties in using the five target verbs. A hierarchy of difficulty was established and the main causes of the problem were identified.