This paper assesses the potential of transgenic trees to generate substantial financial returns in an environmental where there are substantial investment costs in research and development, deregulation and deployment. The formidable obstacles and in addition to the usual research and development costs, include the costs of obtaining requisite intellectual property rights. Also, there are substantial costs to achieve deregulation, and some evidence of deregulatory slowdown in the U.S., and cost of product deployment. The product deployment costs are likely to be higher than for other products, e.g., traditionally improved seedlings, due to substantial and widespread opposition (stigma) to GE in general and transgenic trees particular. As with all trees, the payoff time (harvest) is delayed longer than most other investments and the financial returns adversely affected by the delay. Additionally, the financial costs and benefits may vary substantially by country and region. Some evidence suggests that deregulation costs may vary substantially by country. Additionally, the perceived “stigma” costs are likely to vary greatly among regions thereby providing better opportunities in some markets than others. If deployment depends upon the financial and economic returns, one might expect widespread adoption among some countries, e.g., China and Brazil, where the net benefits are large, and little or no adoption among countries where the net benefits are small, e.g., countries of the EU. However, at this time the final success of GE trees remains to be witnessed. Although some firms have withdrawn entirely from the area of tree GE research, other firms continue to invest substantial sums in tree GE development presumably anticipating eventual payoffs. It remains to be determined whether the technology ultimately is broadly accepted, accepted only regionally or fails globally.
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Impact of Globulins Derived from Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean on Swine Lymphocyte Proliferation in in vitro Cultures
The majority of the global feed market is dominated by the Roundup Ready 40-3-2 transgenic soybean varieties developed and marketed by Monsanto Company, which are characterized by tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient of the Roundup herbicide. It should be remembered, however, that soybean is one of the major allergens which may affect animal health. The aim of the study was to compare allergenic properties of globulins derived from genetically modified (GM) soybean imported from the USA and conventional soybean developed in Poland. Analyses were performed by measuring porcine lymphocyte proliferation in in vitro cultures. It turned out that both genetically modified and conventional soybean proteins caused immune response at the level of negative control. A slight increase in relation to the negative control was observed in the case of 7S and 11S fractions derived from the GM meal and 7S fraction isolated from Nawiko meal.
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6. Abdallah N
Anita Zaworska-Zakrzewska, Małgorzata Kasprowicz-Potocka, Zuzanna Wiśniewska, Andrzej Rutkowski, Marcin Hejdysz, Sebastian Kaczmarek, Nowak Piotr, Anna Zmudzińska and Mirosław Banaszak
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the introduction of 5% of raw soybean seeds instead of soybean meal on the growth, feed consumption and utilization of growing pigs, also the carcass and pork quality. The growth experiment was conducted on 120 pigs of approx. 18.5 kg allocated to two dietary treatments. The animals from the control treatment (CON) were offered a diet with soybean meal, and the experimental group (EXP) was given 5% raw soybean seeds (NON-GMO, Augusta var.) instead of SBM. The experiment lasted 88 days. After the experiment, eight pigs from each group were euthanized and meat samples were collected. No diet effect on the animals’ performance and carcass quality were observed (P>0.05). The experimental diet affected (P<0.05) meat color, and also meat composition (higher water content and lower intramuscular fat content). The composition of fatty acids in the meat did not differ significantly, except for higher C16:1 content in the EXP group.
The introduction of 5% raw soybean seeds in the diets did not impact animal performance, but it reduced some indices of the pork quality.
Nugzar Todua, Teona Gogitidze and Jaba Phutkaradze
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