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could be something challenging and difficult but it is a moral duty for us to highlight the philosophical tasks of Orthodoxy. From this point of view I would like to ask you if you consider that the main characteristic of Orthodoxy could be metaphysics. And when I am saying “metaphysics” I especially make reference to the works of Holy Fathers of the Church such as Saint Maximus the Confessor. Travis Dumsday: The issue of the relationship between Orthodoxy and philosophy is of course very old and very complicated. It is well-known that the dialogue with Greek

: John Philoponus’ Impact on Contemporary Chalcedonian Theology. In: The Mystery of Christ in the Fathers of the Church: Essays in honour of D. Vincent Twomey SVD. J. Rutherford (ed.). Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2011, pp. 94-105. 22. Krausmüller, D. Hiding in Plain Sight: Heterodox Trinitarian Speculation in the Writings of Nicetas Stethatos. Scrinium 9, 2013, pp. 255-284. 23. Krausmüller, D. Responding to John Philoponus: Hypostases, Particular Substances and Perichoresis in the Trinity. Journal for Late Antique Religion and Culture 9, 2015, pp. 13-28. 24. Kuratowski

symbolism as interpreted by the Fathers of the Church (Nicolae Roddy), the turbulent historical context in Roman-held Judea during Jesus Christ’s life and the early first century AD Jewish tradi- tions of war (John Fotopoulos), the assessments about waging war and the very moral nature of war raised by Origen († 253 AD) and the Cappadocian Fathers in late fourth century AD (Valerie A. Karras). The section also relates to the Western critique of the imperial strategy of war as present in the writ- ings of Bishop Ambrose of Mediolanum (George E. Demacopoulos), the

While the Church Fathers enjoy a special authority in the Orthodox Church, also acknowledged in the Roman Catholic Church, in the Protestant tradition their author- ity bears a slightly different under- standing. The Protestant principle sola Scriptura makes it clear that the Bible is the only source of divine rev- elation – or at least a privileged one; nevertheless, Luther, Calvin, or Mel- anchthon regarded the Fathers of the Church with great respect, consider- ing them authoritative commenta- tors of biblical texts, whose think- ing can be fruitful

Trinity in the Greek Fathers. In Phan PC (ed) The Cambridge Companion to the Trinity (Cambridge Companions to Religion) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 49-69. McNamara DN (1978) Ignatius of Antioch on his Death: Discipleship, Sacrifice, Imitation. PhD dissertation. Hamilton: McMaster University. McPartlan P (2009) Eucharist and Church in the Thought of the Fathers of the Church. In Broduer R (ed) L’Eucharistie, don de Dieu pour la vie du monde . Ottawa: Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops, pp. 253-273. Meinhold P (1979) Studien zu Ignatius von

one, entitled Western Influences in Russian Theology, a critical reference was made to the double pseudo-morphosis of Orthodoxy. Namely, heterodox influences were denounced – first of Ro- man-Catholic nature, later of Protestant origin – imposed upon Orthodoxy in general and upon Russian theology. In the second paper, Patristic and Mo- dern Theology4, the Russian theologian and patrologist asserted the necessity of turning to the Fathers of the Church. This condition for the renewal of Orthodoxy was closely connected to assuming „Christian Hellenism” as an

/ Paban, Raymundiana (Anm. 6). Assis, Y. T. The Golden Age of Aragonese Jewry. London: The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2008. Augustine. De Doctrina Christiana . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Augustine of Hippo. City of God. New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Augustin of Hippo,”Tractatus Adversus Judaeos”. In Treatises on Marriage and Other Subjects, Fathers of the Church (vol. 27) . Eds. Roy J. Deferrari. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1955, 387-417. Accessible at Roger Pearse’s blog: https

Appendix: Information on the study on Sources of Authority4 The Faith and Order Plenary Commission gathered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2004 proposed to study various sources that are believed to be au- thoritative in churches and therefore foundational for the distinctive inter- pretations. The proposal came from HE Metropolitan Hilarion Alfeyev and after further discussions and adjustments was included in the wider study on Ecumenical Hermeneutics. It was agreed to begin with the authority of the early church teachers and witnesses, namely with the Fathers of the

of the Old Testament, the ver- sion referred to by the fathers of the church, and error free from a dog- matic perspective. Even if there is no synodal pronouncement to canonize a certain textual variant, local prefer- ences do indicate the exclusivity of the liturgical use of the Septuagint; nevertheless, the use of the Masoretic text when translating the Septuagint into Russian or Romanian and the blessing that the recent translation of the Hebrew Old Testament has enjoyed in Greece indicates a loosen- ing of the historical tensions between Graeca

Psalms, monk Filotheu (Bălan) and Florin Stuparu commented that while the Septuagint “was conceived of as the book of the Old Covenant for the whole Christendom”, quoted by the Apostles in the New Testament and by all the Fathers of the Church4, the Masoretic Text was “full of omissions and additions”, because “the Jews at the end of the first century began to change the text of Scripture under the very careful supervision of rabbis with much hatred of the truth of Scrip- ture, to whom the enemy [i.e. the devil] darkened their minds, so they made many mistakes