Mahmoud Orazizadeh, Maryam Yadegari, Mahmoud Hashemitabar and Ali Khodadadi
Background: Proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a key characteristic of joint diseases. Thus, identification of MMPs expression mechanism in chondrocytes may lead to the development of new treatment for arthritis.
Objectives: Investigate the combination effects of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Prednisolone on ECM alterations and production of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) induced by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) in bovine nasal cartilage (BNC) explants.
Materials and Methods: Ninety mg of BNC explants (10 slices in each well) were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) with IL-1α (10 ng/ml), IL-4 (50 ng/ml) and Prednisolone (1nM, 1000 nM) at the same time for 28 days. At days 3, 6,7,14, 21, and 28 media were removed and replaced with fresh media and the removed media were stored in -20°C. The alterations of ECM were assessed by using histology techniques. The combination effects of IL-4 and Prednisolone on MMP-13 production were analyzed by Western immunoblots. The cell viability was evaluated by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay kit.
Results: The results showed that after 28 days treated with IL-1α, matrix blue staining significantly disappeared. In addition, a clear band of MMP-13 was detected. In the presence of IL-1α and Prednisolone (1000 nM), matrix breakdown was partially decreased and MMP-13 production was significantly reduced. In combination of IL-4 with both low and high dose Prednisolone, proteogycan loss significantly reduced and synergistic inhibition of MMP-13 production were observed. LDH level was not significantly increased in the presence of cytokines and Prednisolone.
Conclusion: The combination of IL-4 and Prednisolone showed profound protective effects on cartilage matrix alterations. A better understanding of the mechanisms by this combination affects MMPs expression in human chondrocytes could provide valuable insight into new therapeutic strategies of cartilage destruction.
In this paper, an econometric model of consumption in Bulgaria for the period 1997-2005 is constructed. The Error-Correction Model (ECM) approach is employed and long-run relationship between household consumption and income was found. The primary purpose of this empirical paper is to get a better understanding of the factors driving household consumption in Bulgaria and to estimate a consumption function to be used for medium-term forecasting. It is shown that all households behave in a Keynesian way, basing their consumption decisions on current income.
M. Azami, M. Anvarinejad and M. Jamshidian Ghalesefidi
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a large family of over twenty different secreted or membrane-bound endopeptidases, involved in many physiological (embryogenesis, precursor or stem cell mobilization, tissue remodeling during wound healing, etc.), as well as pathological (inflammation, tumor progression and metastasis in cancer, vascular pathology, etc.) conditions. For a long time, MMPs were considered only for the ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (e.g., collagen, laminin, fibronectin) and to release hidden epitopes from the ECM. However, expressions of many MMPs have been associated with several pathological conditions. It has been established that the MMPs are conserved throughout the animal kingdom and studies of invertebrate have demonstrated that primarily they are involved in various developing functions in hydra, Drosophila, sea urchin and nematodes. The syntheses of these proteolytic enzymes and their release as excretory and secretory products have been reported in various parasitic nematodes. Host invasion and tissue migration of several nematodes have been linked to the expression and release of parasite-derived proteases. Studies with enzyme inhibitors suggest that the enzyme may be a metalloproteinase. Moreover, substrate impregnated zymographic analysis of extracts and excretory and secretory products of different nematode parasites have revealed the multiple enzyme activities of MMPs with various molecular weights. More research on MMP degradome in nematode parasites can provide valuable information for intense evaluation of pathogenesis caused by these parasites.
 M. Ali, S. Asgari, T. C. Collier, M. Allen, L. Girod, R. E. Hudson, D. T. Blumstein, “An empirical study of collaborative acoustic source localization,” Journal of Signal Processing Systems, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 415-436, 2009.
 Olimpiu Pop, Lacrimioara Grama, Corneliu Rusu, „Fourfold microphones area for acoustic source localization”, Acta Technica Napocensis Electronics and Telecommunications, Volume 58, Number 3, 2017, pp. 16-21.
 Sony ECM-670 shotgun microphone specifications, [Online]. Available: http://www.sony.ro/pro/product/broadcast-products-pro-audio-wired-shotgun/ecm
Małgorzata Soroka, Maciej Słodki, Hanna Moczulska and Maria Respondek-Liberska
DORV [double outlet right ventricle] is defined as a defect in which the great vessels leave entirely or mostly from above the morphologically right ventricle. The proposed by us new prenatal classification of heart defects for the DORV defect including the division into isolated and coexisting with extracardiac defect, facilitates consultation and predicting prognosis for the fetus and newborn. Isolated DORV in fetuses is classified as a severe elective defect (expected cardiac intervention or surgery at 1 month of age) with a relatively good prognosis for newborns, regardless of the type of intracardiac anomalies (in our series of cases 100% survival). DORV in the fetus with coexisting extracardiac defects (ECM) regardless of type of anomaly had poor prognosis (in our study group 100% demise rate).
Alexandros Koulis, George Kaimakamis and Christina Beneki
This paper investigates the hedging effectiveness of the International Index Futures Markets using daily settlement prices for the period 4 January 2010 to 31 December 2015. Standard OLS regressions, Error Correction Model (ECM), as well as Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration model are employed to estimate corresponding hedge ratios that can be employed in risk management. The analyzed sample consists of daily closing market rates of the stock market indexes of the USA and the European futures contracts. The findings indicate that the time varying hedge ratios, if estimated through the ARDL model, are more efficient than the fixed hedge ratios in terms of minimizing the risk. Additionally, there is evidence that the comparative advantage of advanced econometric approaches compared to conventional models is enhanced further for capital markets within peripheral EU countries
Cristina Patuzzo, A Pasquali, E Trabetti, G Malerba, PF Pignatii, M Tessari and G Faggian
The development of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) involves a multifactorial process resulting in alterations of the structure and composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Recently, modifications in microRNA (miRNA) expression were implicated in the pathogenesis of TAA. This study presents a preliminary miRNA microarray analysis conducted on pooled ascending aorta RNAs obtained from non familial non syndromic TAA patients (five males and five females) compared to matched control pools. Ninety-nine differentially expressed miRNAs with >1.5-foldup- or down-regulation in TAAs compared to controls were identified, 16.0% of which were similarly regulated in the two sexes. Genes putatively targeted by differentially expressed miRNAs belonged preferentially to focal adhesion and adherens junction pathways. The results indicate an altered regulation of miRNA-mediated gene expression in the cellular interactions of aneurysmal aortic wall.
-2000: Standard Specification For Public Key Cryptorgraphy, American National Standards Institute, IEEE Computer Society, 2000.
 Daniel J. Bernstein and Peter Birkner and Tanja Lange and Christiane Peters, ECM using Edwards curves, Math. Comput., 82 (282), (2013)
 Torbjörn Granlund and the GMP development team, GMP-5.0.5, 2012.
 Daniel J. Bernstein and Tien-Ren Chen and Chen-Mou Cheng and Tanja Lange and Bo-Yin Yang, ECM on Graphics Cards, EUROCRYPT, 2009, 483-501
 Paul Zimmermann and Bruce Dodson, 20
Mai Yossef, Hoda Megahed, Sawsan Tawfik, Hanaa El Sherif, Ola Eldin, Manal Mohsen, Nagham El-Beblawy and Amira Adly
Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 as a Marker of Microvascular Complications in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Background. Patients with type 1 diabetes develop microangiopathic complications, which are responsible for morbidity in adulthood. It had been widely known that diabetes is associated with alteration in extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can potentially contribute to many microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. MMP-2 is responsible for ECM breakdown and their abnormal circulating levels may pre-date clinical evidence of diabetic angiopathy.
Aim of the work. Is to detect the plasma level and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2, as a serum marker for diabetic vascular diseases, in type 1 diabetic children and adolescents and to identify its relation to the parameters of metabolic control and microvascular complications.
Design. Cross section study including sixty children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus with age range from 7 to 18 years. They were divided into two groups according to diabetic duration. Group I: Thirty patients with diabetes duration less than 5 years ranging from 8 months to 3 years with a mean duration of 1.66 ± 0.75 years. Group II: Thirty patients with diabetes duration more than 5 years ranging from 5 to 14 years with a mean duration of 7.7 ± 2.84 years. Thirty healthy children and adolescents of comparable age, served as controls. Diabetic patients were also divided according to microvascular complications into complicated (n=27) and non complicated (n=33). All patients and controls were subjected to history taking, thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations included; random blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), quantitative determination of urinary microalbumin, fundus examination and measuring of plasma matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels (using ELISA) and activity.
Results. MMP-2 levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients with disease duration more than 5 years compared to diabetic patients with disease duration less than 5 years and controls (848.96 ± 96.81, 559.56 ± 41.02 and 224.6 ± 28.4 ng/ml; P< 0.001 respectively). Highly significant increase in MMP-2 levels in complicated compared to non-complicated diabetic patients (p<0.001). Positive significant correlation was found between MMP-2 levels and age, disease duration, random blood glucose and HbA1c in diabetic patients with disease duration > 5 years (r=0.37, 0.43, 0.3, 0.49 respectively, p<0.05).
Conclusion. MMP-2 concentrations are increased in a limited number of young diabetic subjects with complications, elevated MMP-2 levels and activity could be useful as a screening marker for early detection of diabetic microvascular complications and were correlated with parameters of metabolic control and disease duration and their levels may pre-date clinical evidence of diabetic angiopathy.
podmiotom odpowiedzialnym za utrzymanie taboru - ECM. Część VI. Sitarz M., Chruzik K., R. Wachnik, Technika Transportu Szynowego, Nr 3/2011, s. 49-54
 Zintegrowany system zarządzania bezpieczeństwem w transporcie kolejowym. Podmioty odpowiedzialne za utrzymanie ECM. Część X, Sitarz M., Chruzik K., Wachnik R., Technika Transportu Szynowego, Nr 12/2011, s. 58-61
 Rozporządzenie Komisji (WE) nr 352/2009 z dnia 24 kwietnia 2009 r. w sprawie przyjęcia wspólnej metody oceny bezpieczeństwa w zakresie wyceny i oceny ryzyka, o której mowa w