. (1992). Error correction models and agricultural supply response. Eur Rev Agric Econ, 2, 111-120. Hendy, D. F., Juselius, K. (2000). Explaining Co-integration Analysis: Part I. Energy Journal 21, 44. Land in Europe: prices, taxes and use patterns. (2010). European Environment Agency, No. 4/2010. Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian economics. (2018) FADN survey results. [Data file]. Retrieved from: https://www.laei.lt MacKinnon, J. G. (1991). Critical values for cointegration tests - chapter 13. In: Engle, R
Virgilijus Rutkauskas and Laura Gudauskaitė
, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Hübner K. (2011), Baltic Tigers: The Limits of Unfettered Liberalization , ‘Journal of Baltic Studies’, Vol. 42, No. 1. Kalendiene J., & Miliauskas G. (2011), Lithuanian export competitiveness before economic recession , ‘Business and Economic Horizons’, Vol. 4, No. 1. Kattel R., & Raudla R. (2013), The Baltic Republics and the Crisis of 2008–2011 , ‘Europe-Asia Studies’, Vol. 65, No. 3. Kilvits K. (2014), Restructuring of Manufacture Under Global Financial and Economic Crisis: The Case of Estonia , [in:] Economic and
Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in interpreting (nationwide) conscription as established in the Constitution of Lithuania.
References Antanaitis, Kastytis. "Lietuviškoji sovietinė nomenklatūra" (The Lithuanian soviet nomenclatura). Darbai ir Dienos 7(16) (1998): 161-258. Aucoin, Peter, Jane Jenson, Martin Papillon, Paul G Thomas, and Vincent Lemieux. Modernizing Governance. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Management Development, 2000. Bakaveckas, Audrius. Lietuvos vykdomoji valdžia (Lithuanian executive power). Vilnius: Eugrimas, 2007. Blužaitė, Ingrida. Verbavimas į
At the political level, organised crime has long been regarded as a threat to national security. However, real urgency of this threat has not been defined. Why is this issue “securitised”? Or, in general, should it be included in the list of the most prominent threats? Maybe this phenomenon should be considered as a typical problem that would be resolved by usual means? The article aims to find answers to these questions. Organised crime is analysed by comparing the perspectives of both Lithuania and the European Union. It is sought to evaluate its impact on economic and social values. In this work, the author examined the European Union and national strategic documents identifying the threats posed by organised crime, assessed organised crime groups, their spheres of activity, impact on social security, the factors determining the peculiarities of organised crime development, and revealed the link between organised crime and other threats. The objectives of this article are: 1) to analyse threats posed by organised crime from the Lithuanian and European Union perspectives; 2) to examine structures of organised criminal groups, areas of illicit activities, so-called ‘engines of crime’, and the main ‘crime enablers’ influencing the evolution of criminality;1 3) to assess new challenges and propose specific measures of response towards organised crime as a threat to national security. The author applies systematic evaluation, comparative methods, and analysis of documents and judicial practice. The information derived from interviews with civil servants and operational officers is presented as well.
Eglė Vileikienė and Diana Janušauskienė
References Both, Ken. 2013. “Foreward” in Shepherd, Laura J. (ed.) Critical Approaches to Security. London and New York: Routledge, p.p.xv-xvii. Budrys, Kęstutis. 2008. “The Impact of Cooperation with Poland on Lithuania”s Energy Security” in Lithuanian Annual Strategic Review 2007, Volume 6, p.p. 223-278. Buzan, Barry. 1983. People, States & Fear: The National Security Problem in International Relations. University of North Carolina Press. Buzan, Barry, Wæver, Ole, Wilde, Jaap de. 2008. Security
Jonas Abromas, Petras Grecevičius, Aurelija Jankauskaitė and Nijolė Piekienė
References 1. Abromas, J., Grecevičius, P., Genys, J., Pridotkienė, L., Marčius, R., Dubra, V., Urbonienė, R., Olšauskas, A. M., Dučinskienė, E. (2013). Urbanizuoto kraštovaizdžio analizės ir vertinimo metodika. (Methodology for analyzing and evaluating urban landscapes). Klaipėda. 100 pp. ISBN 978-9955-18-720-2. (in Lithuanian). 2. Atienė, V., Grecevičius, P. (1997). Rekreacinės aplinkos architektūros formavimo tendencijos ir problemos Lietuvos pajūrio regione (Trends and problems in the formation of the recreational environment in the Lithuanian
Natalija Lepkova and Giedrė Žūkaitė-Jefimovienė
References 1. Bagdoniene, L. - Hopeniene, R. (2004). Paslaugij marketingas ir vadyba (Services Marketing and Management), Kaunas: Technologija, 468 pp. ISBN 9955-09-579-2 (in Lithuanian). 2. Barrett, P. - Baldry, D. (2007). Facilities management: towards best practice (2d ed.). Oxford: Blackwell, reprinted. 280 pp. ISBN 978-0-632-06445-8. 3. Chotipanich, S. (2004). Positioning facility management. Facilities, Vol. 22, Nos. 13/14, pp. 364-372. 4. Fečikova, I. (2004). An index method for
Jonas Čičinskas and Arūnas Dulkys
This paper addresses the probable modifications of the economic strategy of Lithuania after the 2008-2009 crisis (the Great Recession) and the changes in macroeconomic environment in the European Union (EU). In Lithuania’s case, like that of the other two Baltic states, a certain specificity of a small open economy was revealed and the need for some adjustment of strategy was displayed. Both the rapid economic progress of the Baltic States as well as their extreme economic depression during the crisis in the largest part was the result of the integration of those national economies into the European and world markets. The crisis has not only halted the economic progress of the EU and other countries of the world for a few years, not only induced attempts to review some weakened postulates of economic theory, but also asked for major adjustments in the economic policy of the EU and member states. Based on the texts drafted by the European Commission it has already agreed on tougher requirements in the Stability and Growth Pact, signed and ratified the Treaty on stability, coordination and governance in the economic and monetary union, and the European semester began operating procedures. EU Member States’ economic policies have become inserted into a rigid frame, and the process of content aggregation of national economic policies will continue. Based on theoretical conclusions of single currency area and the practical requirements of the common monetary policy in the euro area integration processes are underway and will proceed rather fast. By the decisions of European Council the euro area should become a nucleus of economic integration of the EU member states, leading to full economic union. EU’s political leaders, in conformity with the theory of European integration, raise already an issue of political union into the agenda. The article provides an analysis of the changes and draws a couple of conclusions. First, the process of economic integration should be separated stricter than ever before from process of political integration. Second, economic integration modifies the sovereignty of the states (increasingly moving to the principles of unified economic policy and economic decision-aggregation), which is not to be equated with the loss of sovereignty, but requires a new approach in the assessment of factors and motives of a national economic policy and its role in securing country’s sovereignty
Valdis Otzulis and Žaneta Ozoliņa
The presence of NATO troops in the Baltic states has increased in the last years due to changing international environment, increased level of potential risks and threats, and necessity to enhance deterrence in the region. As a result of NATO’s Wales and Warsaw summits decisions, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are entitled to host a battalion size battle group. The article aims at investigating how host nation support (HNS) can contribute to the national defence and, additionally, to the self-defence capabilities of the Baltic states. The concept of HNS is present in the national defence concepts of all three countries. However, its active application and utilization started in the last two years. The article argues that more intensive incorporation of an HNS system in national defence policies serve the capability development in fields like national military logistics, infrastructure, and civil-military cooperation. Those capabilities can serve as an extension of the national defence.