Helga Myrseth, Sigurd William Hystad, Reidar Säfvenbom and Olav Kjellevold Olsen
perceived ability, feedback, and reflection, which then regulate behavior accordingly ( Bandura 1994 , 1997 ); self-efficacy may hence mediate and allow inherent personality traits to be expressed in specific behavior ( Fosse et al. 2015 ).
Specific military skills and the development of military skills
The ideal conduct of military duties requires abilities such as being able to handle stress and bearing with uncertainty in different situations. The primary focus of military training is the building of confidence and high standards of military performance to
Mário J. Costa, Lúcia Cruz, Ana Simão and Tiago M. Barbosa
exercise. There are several equipment commercially available to elicit more exertion. Despite having buoyancy features, equipment like dumbbells or leggings is mostly used as “resistance (or drag) devices” for strength and conditioning purposes. Literature shows little evidence on the acute adaptations when using dumbbells, whereas information on leggings is nonexistent. Costa et al. (2008) noted that performing the “rocking horse” exercise with dumbbells increased the rating of perceived exertion, heart rate and blood lactate concentrations when compared to the same
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12. Giordano A, Cimino V, Campanella A, Morone G, Fusco A, Farinotti M, Palmisano L, Confalonieri P, Lugaresi A, Grasso MG, Ponzio M, Veronese S, Patti F, Solari A; PeNSAMI project. Low quality of
. Puciato D, Borysiuk Z, Rozpara M. (2017). Quality of life and physical activity in an older working-age population. Clin Interv Aging. 4(12), 1627-1634.
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Coutarel, F., & Fiard, J. (2012). Physical education and sport teachers’ health: from expressed ill-being to hindrances of action, Work , 41, 5228-5230.
Demirtas, Z. (2010). Teachers’ job satisfaction levels, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences , 9, 1069
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Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence . New York, NY: Bantam.
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2001). Primal leadership: The
Romain Bouzigon, Gilles Ravier, Benoit Dugue and Frederic Grappe
., 2009 ). PBC is available in a mobile device which enables its use at training and competition sites.
Benefits of PBC for physical recovery improvement have been demonstrated ( Bouzigon et al., 2016 ). However, whether an exposure at –130 °C or less is well tolerated by athletes during a competition is questionable. Such exposure could be perceived as too painful, stressful and even dangerous and could lower or eliminate the beneficial effects of cryostimulation. During competition, psychological stress increases in athletes ( Filaire et al., 2001 ). Moreover
Alliance Kubayi, Yoga Coopoo and Heather Morris-Eyton
organisations to design strategies that could help to retain sport coaches in the country. Therefore, the present study was carried out to ascertain perceived hindrances experienced by sport coaches using exploratory factor analysis.
Material and Methods
A total of 224 sport coaches (122 males and 102 females) from the Gauteng Province of South Africa participated in this study. The participants represented a variety of sports: soccer ( n = 87), athletics ( n = 45), netball ( n = 44), cricket ( n = 19), rugby ( n = 12), swimming ( n = 10), boxing
Camila G. Freitas, Marcelo S. Aoki, Ademir F. S. Arruda, Clóvis Franciscon and Alexandre Moreira
, OM represented a sufficient source of stress that resulted in a significant decrement in SIgA concentration. This result suggests that the additional stress provided by participating in an official competition may lead to changes in the mucosal immunity function in young soccer players. These findings are in agreement with data from the study conducted on young female handball players ( Nazem et al., 2011 ) that reported a decrement in SIgA concentration after matches perceived as “more difficult”. Considering the results from the present study and the findings