Bayati M, Farzad B, Gharakhaniou R, Agha-Alinejad H. A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces performance and metabolic adaptations that resemble ‘all-out’ sprint interval training. J Sports Sci Med, 2011; 10: 571-576
Boer PH, Meeus M, Terblanche H, Rombaut L, Wandele ID, Hermans L, Gysel T, Ruige J, Calders P. The influence of sprint interval training on body composition, physical and metabolic fitness in adolescents and young adults with intellectual disability: a randomized
Zsolt Csirkés, Károly Bretz, Katalin Jakab and Rita F Földi
S.J. (2013) The relationship of stability performance and the physical growth characteristics of preschool children. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 1: 8-16. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.1984.10605349.
23. Ferdjallah M., Harris G.F., Smith P., Wertsch J.J. (2002) Analysis of postural control synergies during quiet standing in healthy children and children with cerebral palsy. Clin. Biomech., 17(3): 203-210. DOI: 10.1016./S0268-0033(01)00121-8.
24. Figura F., Cama G., Capranica L., Guidetti L., Pulejo C. (1991) Assessment of static balance in
Robert Nowak, Rafał Buryta, Krzysztof Krupecki, Tomasz Zając, Marek Zawartka, Patrizia Proia and Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak
’ blood. There is a thin line between the desired stimulation and overreaching or overtraining, especially during the preparatory stage before prestigious competitions like the Olympic Games.
It should be emphasized that there is a large gap in research regarding post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There is little data on the adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes. This is probably due to difficulties in gathering a homogenous group of athletes. Rowing, representing an endurance sport discipline, is characterized by very intense competition
Aleksandra Kisilewicz, Marcin Janusiak, Rafał Szafraniec, Małgorzata Smoter, Bogdan Ciszek, Pascal Madeleine, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas and Adam Kawczyński
treatment programs of professional athletes ( Vahimets et al., 2006 ).
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is mainly featured by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and is a musculoskeletal disorder that can be developed with any type of sports training and performance. The shoulder and scapula regions including the upper trapezius muscle are the most common areas developing myofascial pain syndrome among overhead sport activities ( Hidalgo-Lozano et al., 2013 ). MTrPs are characterized by the presence of a palpable taut band or a spot within a skeletal muscle ( Barbero et al
, absence, disability, and presenteeism cost estimates of certain physical and mental health conditions affecting U.S. employers. J Occup Environ Med, 2004; 46: 398-412
Grenier J, Millet G, Peyrot N, Samozino P, Oullion R, Messonnier L, Morin J. Effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on neuromuscular function and locomotion: a military-based study. PloS ONE, 2012; 7: e43586
Grenier J, Peyrot N, Castells J, Oullion R, Messonnier L, Morin J. Energy cost and mechanical work of walking during load carriage in soldiers. Med Sci Sports
Aneta Omelan, Robert Podstawski and Marek Raczkowski
: Tourism and Leisure Behavior of Older Adults . Wallingford/Cambridge: CABI Publishing.
Polish Central Statistical Office (2012). Wyniki Narodowego Spisu Powszechnego Ludności i Mieszkań 2011. Podstawowe informacje o sytuacji demograficzno-społecznej ludności Polski oraz zasobach mieszkaniowych /National Population Census 2011. Basic data on the demographic and social status of Polish residents and housing resources in Poland/ . Warszawa: GUS.
Polish Ministry of Sport and Tourism (PMS&T) (2011). Preferencje osób starszych dotyczące wyjazdów turystycznych
]. Warszawa: Laboratotium Technik Diagnostycznych im.B.Zawadzkiego.
Kulas, H. (1986). Samoocena młodzieży . [Self-evaluation of teenagers]. Warszawa: WSiP.
Kurtek, P. (2005). Regulacyjna rola poczucia kontroli w radzeniu sobie młodzieży z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną lekkiego stopnia w sytuacjach trudnych. [Regulatory role of the feeling of control in adolescents coping with low level intellectual disability in difficult situations]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 3, 277‒294.
Lachowska, B. (2010). Style rozwiązywania konfliktów i ich efekty w relacji
-efficacy improvement plays an important role in the successful treatment of many chronic illnesses. Adam and Folds described self-efficacy as an individual’s belief. 9 It is an individual’s internal intension to meet the desired goal. The patient’s self-efficacy may affect their behavior and disease process. Self-efficacy is very important for the patient to adjust to a disability, especially in the area of chronic illness such as blood pressure control, glycemic control, and rehabilitation. 11 For type 2 diabetes patients, self-management behaviors include blood glucose
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann and Christoph A. Rüst
compared to women ( König et al., 2014 ). For elite butterfly swimmers, the age of peak performance ( Zingg et al., 2014 ) and the sex difference in peak butterfly performance ( König et al., 2014 ; Wolfrum et al., 2013 ; Zingg et al., 2014 ) have been already investigated. Most of research on this sport discipline concerns elite swimmers and less information is available regarding master swimmers. Considering master athletes, it is known that swimming performance decreases with age ( Gatta et al., 2006 ; Senefeld et al., 2016). The decrease in performance in master
Stefania Środa-Murawska, Leszek S. Dąbrowski and Paweł Smoliński
typology of desired changes in the area covered by the city of Toruń. The following types were distinguished:
1) safety, security and order – projects related to the improvement of security (e.g. by introducing additional lighting, adapting space to people with disabilities) and introducing a new arrangement of space (e.g. new rubbish bins);
2) road infrastructure – projects including the modernisation of roads, pavements, etc.;
3) culture and education – all projects that concern cultural and educational facilities as well as cultural and educational events;