Temporal dynamics of soil nematode community structure at the depth of 0 — 30 cm was compared under invasive Ambrosia trifida and native Chenopodium serotinum in an abandoned cropland in Northeast China. The results showed the difference of nematode taxa and dominant genera under A. trifida and C. serotinum during the study period. Acrobeloides and Paratylenchus were found to be dominant genera under both A. trifida and C. serotinum. Helicotylenchus prevailed in soil with C. serotinum, while Macroposthonia was dominant in soil with A. trifida. Nematode taxa was higher under A. trifida than under C. serotinum from June to September. Except in the July, significantly higher numbers of plant-parasites were observed under A. trifida than under C. serotinum during the study period (P < 0.05). Nematode taxa, Simpson index and structure index were found to be sensitive indicators that detected nematode community structural differences under A. trifida and C. serotinum during the study period.
The aim of this paper is to determine changes in the structure of demographic types of small towns in Poland between 2004 and 2013. It is assumed in the paper, following the Central Statistical Office of Poland, that small towns are urban settlements having less than 20,000 inhabitants. The time period covered in this study is the time of Poland’s accession to the EU, which brought reduction of many barriers on the labour market and in migration movement. Demographic types of small towns were determined using Webb’s typology. Natural increase and migration indicators constitute its base. It was found that the share of towns of progressive character decreased and the share of those of regressive character increased in the analyzed period. A negative migration balance had the greatest effect on the number of inhabitants of the analyzed settlement units. The described demographic changes in small towns in Poland were connected with the second stage of demographic transition.
The paper presents the results of research aimed at assessing the geographic diversification of the income affordability of flats on both the primary and secondary markets in Poland in the years 2012 - 2016. It analyzes the differences in the income affordability of flats: 1) in voivodeship cities, 2) between voivodeship cities, 3) between voivodeship capitals and other major cities located in counties in the voivodeship. Measures of differentiation and the Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher-Snedecor and t-Student tests were used. The source of the data used to conduct the study was the AMRON system. The results of the study indicate that: 1) changes in the income affordability of flats in voivodeship cities were small during the analyzed period, 2) the average diversification in voivodeship cities in terms of the income affordability of flats was small, however the differences in the extreme values of housing affordability indicators were high, 3) the maximum differences in the income affordability of flats between counties in the same voivodeship were high, 4) in a majority of voivodeships (11 out of 16), the income affordability of flats in a voivodeship city was lower (not always statistically significantly) than in the remaining counties of the voivodeship.
Ricardo Lima, Ana Filipa Silva and Filipe Manuel Clemente
Study aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to compare total attacks, points in the defense phase and attack efficiency between playing positions; and (ii) to identify the main predictors of overall volleyball teams’ success related to points made during the game.
Material and methods: 282 sets with a total of 33 174 actions and 8 231 points were analyzed. The study included 14 teams participating in the male First Division Portuguese Championship (53 games from the 2016/2017 season and 27 from the first phase of the 2017/2018 season, for a total of 80 matches).
Results: The most important parameters for the overall performance are efficacy of points in defense phase, aces, block points, and attack efficiency. Overall team performance variables statistically significantly predicted the total points of the team, F16,1091 = 39.375, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.366. Considering the comparisons between players’ performances, it was found that the setter had the lowest number of points in the defense phase and total attacks. Opposites had more total attacks and points in the defense phase than the other players (at a small-to-moderate magnitude).
Conclusion: The results revealed the importance of the efficacy of points in the defense phase, namely regarding the service action, block point, and attack efficiency, to improve the possibilities of winning.
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Lei Su, Zongqiang Xie, Wenting Xu and Changming Zhao
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