or subcutaneous immunoglobulin. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013;174(2):203-11. DOI: 10.1111/cei.12178
40. Seppänen M, Aghamohammadi A, Rezaei N. Is there a need to redefine the diagnostic criteria for common variable immunodeficiency? Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2014;10(1):1-5. DOI: 10.1586/1744666X.2014.870478
41. Nijman IJ, Van Montfrans JM, Hoogstraat M, Boes ML, Van De Corp, Renner ED, et al. Targeted next-generation sequencing: A novel diagnostic tool for primary immunodeficiencies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):529-34. DOI: 10.1016/j
showed that the expression of OaCdc42 mRNA displayed fluctuations and oscillations ( Fig. 5 ); the possible reason was that Brucella bacteria were able to reversibly activate Cdc42 to induce its own uptake.
At present, serological testing is still the primary clinical tool to diagnose brucellosis. However, lipopolysaccharide of vaccine strain of Brucella spp. is similar to the virulent strain ( 5 ), so antibodies induced by vaccine strain can interfere with serological diagnosis. Thus, routine serological diagnosis fails to distinguish vaccinated from naturally
Mingxing Su, Congsong Sun, Haiying Wang, Chunyu Yuan, Ruixia Guo, Yajie Liang, Chao Liu and Qiang Wang
]. Epidemiological studies have also found that various acute and chronic diseases are closely related to long-term exposure to environmental pollutants [ 1 , 9 , 10 , 11 ]. The impact of acute exposure to high air concentrations of arsenic on the human blood system has not been determined. Therefore, establishing an animal model of respiratory exposure to arsenic can provide an experimental tool to explore the influence of this pollutant on the human blood system.
Materials and methods
Reagents and equipments
Arsenic trioxide (ATO; 100 mg/mL; batch number: 14041
Marcin Gołyński, Piotr Dębiak, Magdalena Gołyńska, Ewa Myśliwiec, Piotr Szkodziak, Grzegorz Kalisz, Anna Śmiech, Krzysztof Lutnicki and Marcin Szczepanik
data suggested that methimazole significantly modulates the production of reactive oxygen species, or stimulates the mechanisms of anti-free radical defence and that this is one of the protective actions of this medicine, whereas oxidative stress is an important cause of testicular damage and infertility in males ( 10 , 22 ).
Similarly to ultrasound imaging of the testes, elastosonography of these organs in B-mode can be a useful tool in diagnosis of infertility in males; however, there is a lack of extensive studies in this area ( 21 ). It is quick and non
therapeutic strategies for vascular wall inflammation and markers of As have been only developed in recent years [ 9 ]. The distribution of blood lipids, especially HDL and LDL cholesterol, is an important tool for monitoring the risk of As. However, whether or not SR-BI-mediated efflux originates from a different or similar cell pool of cholesterol remains unclear. The function of SR-BI and its therapeutic potential in diseases, including As, malignancies, and infections, should be further studied.
Conflict of interest : The author
Marcin Weiner, Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Dorota Plewik, Anna Pańczuk, Marta Siłuch, Jerzy Zagórski, Paweł Sobczak, Tomasz Chmielewski, Stanisława Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Mariia Shkilna, Mykhailo Korda, Ivan Klisch, Mykhailo Andreychyn and Mariana Pavliuk
those in the GenBank database was made using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn), available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (Maryland, USA).
The study was conducted on 136 ticks, including: 126/136 (93%) adults (70/136 females and 56/136 males) and 10/136 (7%) nymphs. The data on the collection locations and tick numbers are presented in Table 1 .
All the ticks tested belonged to the I. ricinus species. The DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s. l . was present in 6/136 ticks (4.4%): 3 females (2.2%), 2 males (1.5%, and 1
Marta Kupryś-Caruk, Monika Michalczuk, Beata Chabłowska, Ilona Stefańska, Danuta Kotyrba and Marta Parzeniecka-Jaworska
broiler chickens are the same for both sexes.
A key tool in the diagnosis of certain diseases is the determination of enzyme activity in the metabolic profile. Increasing enzyme activity in blood may indicate damage to cellular structures and is proportional to its degree ( 13 ). Interpretation of the assay results, however, is difficult due to the wide range of enzyme activities ( 9 ).
AST activity is currently considered to be a very sensitive but nonspecific biomarker of hepatocellular disease and is used with the muscle-specific enzyme creatine kinase (CK) to
per day consumption, and only one honey would pose a potential risk to children.
In conclusion, a sensitive and selective method suitable for determination of PAs in honey has been developed. The method has been validated according to the SANTE/11945/2015 guidance document, and all evaluated parameters are in agreement with the requirements. For these reasons the developed method can be perceived as a useful tool for the analysis of selected PAs in honey in routine laboratory practice. The method has been applied to the analysis of 50 honey samples. Among analysed