André Ourednik, Guido Koller, Peter Fleer and Stefan Nellen
ideological culturalism and, at worse, phrenology to creationism. Thus, while considering any finite set of ›basic emotions‹ as an epistemic construct, we also recognise its pragmatic value and necessity.
We retain that natural language provides names for sentiments, which can serve as a classification basis. We also pose that language participates in the mental state of its speaker, by encouraging her to conceive her emotions in a specific way. In turn, her use of a given vocabulary to express her emotions contributes to the reification of this vocabulary and of the
cultivate the mind to expand the depth of knowledge about our world. European-American learning focuses on developing these four essential pursuits: active engagement, critical thinking, exploration, and self-expression. In an East Asian model of learning arising from an Eastern intellectual tradition of Confucius, education focuses on developing ethical character and personal excellence. East Asian learning centers on five key virtues aimed at perfecting the moral self: concentration, diligence, endurance, perseverance, and sincerity.
These different models of learning