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Filipe Manuel Clemente, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Cornelis M. I. Niels Van Der Linden and Bruno Silva

References 1. Rebelo ANC, Silva P, Rago V, Barreira D, Krustrup P. Differences in strength and speed demands between 4v4 and 8v8 small-sided football games. J Sports Sci. 2016; 34(24):2246-2254; doi: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1194527. 2. Hill-Haas SV, Dawson B, Impellizzeri FM, Coutts AJ. Physiology of small-sided games training in football: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2011;41(3):199-220; doi: 10.2165/11539740-000000000-00000. 3. Clemente FM, Small-sided and conditioned games in soccer training: the science

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Joaquín González-Rodenas, Ferran Calabuig and Rafael Aranda

(6): 561-72 Sassi R, Reilly T, Impellizzeri F. A comparison of small-sides games and interval training in elite professional soccer players. In T Reilly, J Cabri and D Araújo (Eds.), Science and Football V. London: Routledge, 341-243; 2005 Tessitore A, Meeusen R, Piacentini M, Demarie S, Capranica L. Physiological and technical aspects of “6-a- side” soccer drills. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2006; 46(1): 36-43

Open access

David Casamichana and Julen Castellano

References Aguiar M, Botelho G, Lago C, Maças V, Sampaio J. A review on the effects of soccer small-sided games. J Hum Kinet, 2012; 33: 103-113 Akenhead R, Hayes P, Thompson K, French D. Diminutions of acceleration and deceleration output during professional football match play. J Sci Med Sport, 2013; 6: 556–561 Alexiou H, Coutts A. A comparison of methods used for quantifying internal training load in women soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform , 2008; 3: 320-330. Aughey R, Fallon C. Real-time versus post-game GPS data in team

Open access

Jeffrey C. Pagaduan, Haris Pojskić, Edin Užičanin and Fuad Babajić

The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of warm-up strategies on countermovement jump performance. Twenty-nine male college football players (age: 19.4 ± 1.1 years; body height: 179.0 ± 5.1 cm; body mass: 73.1 ± 8.0 kg; % body fat: 11.1 ± 2.7) from the Tuzla University underwent a control (no warm-up) and different warm-up conditions: 1. general warm-up; 2. general warm-up with dynamic stretching; 3. general warm-up, dynamic stretching and passive stretching; 4. passive static stretching; 5. passive static stretching and general warm-up; and, 6. passive static stretching, general warm-up and dynamic stretching. Countermovement jump performance was measured after each intervention or control. Results from one way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference on warm-up strategies at F (4.07, 113.86) = 69.56, p < 0.001, eta squared = 0.72. Bonferonni post hoc revealed that a general warm-up and a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted the greatest gains among all interventions. On the other hand, no warm-up and passive static stretching displayed the least results in countermovement jump performance. In conclusion, countermovement jump performance preceded by a general warmup or a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted superior gains in countermovement jump performance.

Open access

Mohammed Zerf, Hadje Besultan, Norddine Attouti, Blidi Touati and Moulay Idriss Mokkedes

. 13. GIPA, 2007. Water Polo Goalkeeper . Zagreb: Library of University Split. 14. GOSWAMY, N., 2014. The Medical Science of Total Body Transformation . US: Lulu Publishing Services. 15. GRAY A. J. & D. G. JENKINS, 2010. Match Analysis and the Physiological Demands of Australian Football. Sports Med. 40 (4): 347-60. 16. GRIFFIN. J. C., 2015. Client-Centered Exercise Prescription . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 17. HADJAR, K. H., S. M., KOUTCHOUK, M. MIME, M. ZERF & Z. FATEH, 2016. Which Training Improves the Ability to Control and

Open access

Carsten Hvid Larsen and Kristoffer Henriksen

Danish professional football. PhD. Dissertation from Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. Retrieved from Larsen, C. H., Alfermann, D., Henriksen, K., & Christensen, M. K. (2014). Preparing footballers for the next step: An intervention program from an ecological perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 28, 91-102. Retrieved from Markman, K. D., & Guenther

Open access

Gábor Rappai and Diána Ivett Fűrész


Based on previous research it can be stated that modelling sport economics related demand curves (e.g. demand for sport events and athletes) is different from other types of modelling. The difference lies in the fact that some parts of the demand curves are nearly horizontal in case of sport goods and nearly vertical in case of athletes, because the price of sport events is inflexible and at the same time, salaries of top athletes are extremely flexible. This study investigates parameter estimation methods appropriate for the relevant demand functions of sport economics. In this cases the generally used ordinary least squares estimator is less robust, so the weighted least squares estimators are able to handle heteroskedasticity. If the distribution of the variables is known, the Newey-West heteroscedasticity corrected estimates give even stronger results. The empirical study analyses footballer transfer fees in top European leagues and identifies a threshold at which the traditional supply-demand functions are not appropriate. According to the results, word class athletes, in a way, can be considered prestige goods for which demand may be irrational.

Open access

Katarzyna Dangel and Waldemar Skowroński


Introduction: Unified Sports are the official programme of Special Olympics, which brings together people with intellectual disabilities (athletes) with their peers with no such disabilities (partners) in teams, in trainings and during competitions.

The aim: The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the level of engagement in sport activity by partners and athletes in the teams of unified football programme during Special Olympics.

Materials and methods: 206 participants - 113 athletes and 93 partners - from the teams of unified football programme took part in the research in Poland. The average age among the athletes was 15.5, and among the partners 15.7. The results obtained are just a fraction of deeper, international research done with the use of a questionnaire by the University of Ulster in 2009-2010.

Results: All the people surveyed like taking part in both trainings and competitions. Around 70% like both of them a lot, 30% enjoy them a bit. In accordance with the answer to the question “How often did you try to do your best in a competition?” one can assume that all the people in the group were highly engaged in the game - 54% all the time, 46% sometimes. All the people questioned claim that their team is competitive - 51% believe it to be very competitive, 48% quite competitive. The partners believed that trainings were more challenging for the athletes than for them. Substantially more partners state that the athletes were doing their best in a competition when compared with the opinion of the athletes themselves.

Conclusions: The results prove that the aims of the programme for Unified Sports are realized properly. The fact that all the participants find pleasure in doing sports and that they positively assess the competitiveness of their team explains why all of them are so engaged in sports activity. It means that the programme is really valuable and can develop in a positive way. Research on the motives of taking part in Unified Sports and relations between athletes and partners should, therefore, be continued.

Open access

Janos Tóth jr., David Zalai, Janos Tóth and Pál Hamar

) Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for talented young Danish football players. Eur. Phys. Edu. Rev., 15: 115-133. 13. McCarthy P.J., Jones M.V., Clark-Carter D. (2008) Understanding enjoyment in youth sport: A developmental perspective. Psychol. Sport Exerc., 9: 142-156.

Open access

TV Sports Viewers – Who Are They?

A Norwegian Case Study

Harry Arne Solberg and Randi Hammervold

References Andreff, W. & Bourg, J-F. (2006) ‘Broadcasting Rights and the Competition in European Football’, in C. Jeanrenaud & S. Kèsenne, (eds.) The Economics of Sport and the Media. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Baimbridge, M., Cameron, S. & Dawson P. (1996) Satellite Television and the Demand for Football: A whole New Ball Game, Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 43, pp. 317-33. Boardman, A.E. & Hargreaves-Heap, S.P. (1999) ‘Network Externalities and Government Restrictions on Satellite Broadcasting of