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H1: Increases in walking speed will lead to greater plantar pressure.
H2: NW will reduce the plantar pressure compared to W.
H3: The mechanical differences between NW techniques (Alpha, Diagonal) will lead to different plantar pressure distribution.
Material and Methods
Twenty-seven physically active sport science students were randomly assigned to one of the training groups: Alpha Technique (AT, n = 15, age = 20.4 ± 1.6 years; body mass = 75.5 ± 10.2 kg; body height = 179.1 ± 8.8 cm) or Diagonal Technique (DT, n = 12, age = 19.3 ± 0
Xiaole Sun, Yang Yang, Lin Wang, Xini Zhang and Weijie Fu
lower extremity injury within the previous 6 months and no vigorous exercise within 24 hours before the experiment. Before the start of the study, participants were familiarized with the experimental protocol and potential risks. Informed written consent was obtained from each participant and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai University of Sport. Instrumentation
Two 90 × 60 × 10 cm 3D force plates (9287B, Kistler Corporation, Switzerland) embedded in the laboratory floor were used to register the ground reaction force (GRF) data at 1200 Hz
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Bartosz Molik, Andrzej Kosmol, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Judit Lencse-Mucha, Anna Mróz, Karol Gryko and Jolanta Marszałek
complex structure of movement are prevalent ( Skucas and Pokvytyte, 2017 ; Yanci et al., 2015 ). Furthermore, an increase in the number of studies on performance in wheelchair sports has been observed over the past two decades ( de Groot et al., 2016 ; Leicht et al., 2012 , 2013 ; Molik et al., 2010 ; Paulson and Goosey-Tolfrey, 2017 ; Pereira et al., 2016 ; Vanlandewijck et al., 1999 ; Weissland et al., 2015 ). Wheelchair basketball is a team sport for individuals with such chronic conditions resulting in lower-limb disability as spinal cord injury, cerebral
Hrvoje Karnincic, Marijana Cavala and Nenad Rogulj
health and is the cause of death in 3.8% of cases and accounts for 4.6% of permanent disability cases, which makes it the most prominent risk factor to avoid ( Rehm et al., 2009 ). For a long period of time, sports activity was considered a protective factor against alcohol abuse, although study results have been controversial. Several recent studies indicated that sports were a risk factor for alcohol consumption ( Dietze et al., 2008 ) and that alcohol abuse prevention programs have already been introduced in sports environments ( Kingsland et al., 2015 , 2016