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M. Olinski, B. Lewandowski and A. Gronowicz

References Advance Electronic and Medical Industries Co. LTD, Berkeley Robotics & Human Engineering Laboratory Bober T. and Zawadzki J. (2003): Biomechanics of human movement system. (in Polish). - 2nd edition corrected, Publisher BK, Wroclaw Bradley D., Acosta-Marquez C., Hawley M., Brownsell S., Enderby P. and Mawson S. (2009): NeXOS - The design, development and evaluation of a rehabilitation system for the lower limbs. - Mechatronics

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Michał Kuszewski, Rafał Gnat, Grzegorz Sobota and Andrzej Myśliwiec

References Błaszczyk JW, Lowe DL, Hansen PD. Ranges of postural stability and their changes in the elderly. Gait Posture, 1994; 2: 11-7 Davis S, Ashby P, McCale K, McQuain J, Wine J. The effectiveness of 3 Stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility using consistent stretching parameters. J Strength Cond Res, 2005; 19: 27-32 Feldman AG. Functional tuning of the nervous system during control of movement and maintenance of a steady posture II. Controllable parameters of the muscle. Biofizika, 1966; 11: 498

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Anna Famuła, Janusz Nowotny, Olga Nowotny-Czupryna, Joanna Szymańska and Beata Kita

. Stabilometric parameters are affected by anthropometry and foot placement. Clinical Biomechanics 2002; 17: 666-677. 19. Melzer I, Benjuya N, Kaplanski J. Postural stability in the elderly: a comparison between fallers and non-fallers. Age and ageing 2004; 33(6): 602-607. 20. Kelly VE, Schrager MA, Price R, Ferrucci L, Shumway-Cook A. Age-Associated Effects of a Concurrent Cognitive Task on Gait Speed and Stability During Narrow-Base Walking. Journal of Gerontology 2008; 63A (12): 1329-1334. 21. Van Iersel MB, Kessels RPC

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Benedikt A. Gasser, Adrian M. Stäuber, Glenn Lurmann, Fabio A. Breil, Hans H. Hoppeler and Michael Vogt

., Chapman A.R., McPoil T.G., Vicenzino B., Foot orthoses and gait: a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature pertaining to potential mechanisms. Br J Sports Med, 2010, 44 (14), 1035-1046, doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2009.066977. 4. Stein R., Zehr E.P., Bobet J., Basics concepts of movement control. In: Nigg B.M., MacIntosh B.R., Mester J. (eds.), Biomechanics and biology of movement. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2000, 263-276. 5. Romkes J., Statische Gleichgewichtskontrolle mit dem MBT Schuh. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin und

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Jonathan Sinclair, Paul John Taylor, Jack Hebron, Darrell Brooks, Howard Thomas Hurst and Stephen Atkins

clinical significance of electromyography normalisation techniques in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury during treadmill walking. Gait Posture , 2003; 18: 56–63 Bolgla LA, Uhl TL. Reliability of electromyographic normalization methods for evaluating the hip musculature. J Electromyogr Kinesiol , 2007; 17: 102-111 Burden A, Bartlett R. Normalisation of EMG amplitude: an evaluation and comparison of old and new methods. Med Eng Phys , 1999; 21: 247–257 Burden AM, Trew M, Baltzopoulos V. Normalisation of gait EMGs: a re-examination. J

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Rahel Ammann, Wolfgang Taube, Matthias Neuhaus and Thomas Wyss

in as it stabilises the posture of the body ( Anderson, 199 6; Williams and Cavanagh, 1987 ). Both the frequency and the amplitude of the arm swing depend on gait speed ( Thielemans et al., 2014 ). Thus, slow gait speeds result in low frequencies and small amplitudes, which increase with running and sprinting. The frequency and the amplitude are also both dependent on body height, as taller people typically have longer legs and arms, which they move with lower frequencies but larger amplitudes when travelling at the same speed as shorter people. The aim of this

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Zbigniew Ossowski, Ewelina Liedtke, Katarzyna Siemieniuk, Sandra Szydłowska, Piotr Sakowski and Wojciech Skrobot

strength and movement speed on the biomechanics of rising from a chair in healthy elderly and young women. Gait and Posture 8(3), 175-185. 23. Sugiyama K., Kawamura M., Tomita H., Katamoto S. (2013). Oxygen uptake, heart rate, perceived exertion, and integrated electromyogram of the lower and upper extremities during level and Nordic walking on a treadmill. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 32(1), 2. DOI: 10.1186/1880-6805-32-2. 24. Shim J.M., Kwon H.Y., Kim H.R., Kim B.I., Jung J.H. (2013). Comparison of the effects of walking with

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Sahab Omran, Sophie Sakka and Yannick Aoustin

Spectrum, 2012. [15] Hayot C., Sakka S., Fohanno V., Lacouture P.: Biomechanical modeling of the 3D center of mass trajectory during walking. In Movement and Sport Sciences – Science and Motricité, 2013. [16] Soechting J. F., Bunco Ch. A., Herrmann U., Flanders M.: Moving Effortlessly in Three Apply to Arm Movement. In The Journal of Neuroscience, 15(9) 6271-6280, 1995. [17] Zijlstra W., Hof At L.: Displacement of the pelvis during human walking: experimental data and model predictions. In Gait & Posture, 6(3) 249-262, 1997.

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Carsten Brausch and Dušan Katunský

13th International Scientific Conference: Current Issues of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 7-9September 2011 (pp 1-10). Herľany, Slovakia: TU Košice. [13] Galajdova,A. et al. (2009). Testing of e-services for seniors and people with disabilities within e-inclusion project MonAMI. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Vol. 32(1), S75-S76. [14] Šimšík,D. et al. (2009). Wearable non-invasive computer controlled system for improving of seniors gait. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Vol. 32(1), p. 35

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Nutthapon Zonthichai, Chatchadaporn Pitaksathienkul and Pasakorn Watanatada

populations. Respirol. 2006; 11:211-6. 7. Thompson WR, Gordon NF, Pescatello LS. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 8th ed. Baltimore:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. 8. Winter DA. Kinetics: forces and moments of force Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. 2nd ed. New York:Wiley Interscience; 1990. p. 86-117. 9. Hreljac A, Imamura R, Escamilla RF, Casebolt J, Sison M. Preferred and energetically optimal transition speeds during backward human locomotion. J Sports Sci Med. 2005; 4