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Signal void and pseudo-pneumatized sinus in fungal rhinosinusitis – Case report

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Signal void, or the absence of signal on MRI sequences, in the sinonasal region may be encountered in fungal rhinosinusitis cases with the aspect of a pseudo-pneumatized sinus, leading to diagnostic errors.

CASE REPORT. We present the case of a 75-year-old woman referred to our clinic for complete and persistent right-sided nasal obstruction. The patient was evaluated using sinus CT and contrast-enhanced head MRI. Opacification of the right maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinuses as well as of the right nasal fossa were seen on CT, with maxillary sinus expansion and osseous erosion. The MRI showed T2 signal void in the maxillary sinus with extension to the nasal fossa, creating the appearance of a pseudo-pneumatized sinus, and hyperintense signal in the ipsilateral anterior ethmoid and frontal sinuses. The patient underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The dual imaging evaluation of the patient aided the preoperative differential diagnosis and choosing the surgical approach.

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Endoscopic endonasal resection of a nasal meningoencephalocele - Case report

Abstract

Nasal meningoencephaloceles are rare findings, represented by protrusions of intracranial contents into the nasal cavity. They present as unilateral masses, and commonly determine unilateral nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea and non-characteristic headaches.

We present the case of a 34-year-old patient diagnosed with a posttraumatic transethmoidal meningoencephalocele. The patient presented with unilateral nasal obstruction, mild headache and episodic watery rhinorrhea. The treatment was endoscopic endonasal surgical excision and repair of the skull base defect, in a mixt ENT-neurosurgical team. Patient follow-up showed no remaining mass or symptoms and normal closure of the skull base defect.

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Bilateral sinoliths in the ethmoid sinus – a rare Cone Beam CT finding

Abstract

Sinoliths are calculi found particularly in paranasal sinuses, the rarest location being the ethmoid air cells. There were previously reported only 4 cases of unilateral large ethmoidal sinoliths (ES), this one being the fifth report. We report here the incidental bilateral evidence in a 34-year-old female patient evaluated in Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) of minor ES. The left ES, of 1.6 mm2 sagittal size, occupied the suprabullar cell, in front of the ground lamella and behind the anterior ethmoidal canal. The right ES, of 7.6 mm2, was located behind the ground lamella. The radiodensity of each ES was about 1000 HU, their bone quality being thus assessed. This is the first evidence of bilateral and clinically silent ethmoidal sinoliths. Being small-sized and incidentally found, it seems reasonable to consider that ethmoidal sinoliths could have a higher incidence but they are overlooked due to the lack of clinical manifestations.

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The impact of gastroesophageal reflux in the ENT pathology

Abstract

Frequently encountered in medical practice, the gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a chronic condition characterized by the passage of gastric acid or gastric contents into the esophagus. In otorhinolaryngology, the diagnosis of pharyngo-laryngeal or rhinosinusal inflammatory conditions secondary to GER is one of exclusion and it is based on a detailed anamnesis in which we are interested in symptoms, behavioural and medical risk factors, on the ENT clinical examination, the laryngo-fibroscopical assessment, the phoniatric examination, the barite pharyngo-esogastric exam, the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the esophageal manometry.

The authors are making a systematization of the contribution of the gastroesophageal reflux has in the ENT pathology, emphasising the sympytoms and the most frequent associated pathological entities.

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Whiplash Syndrome

Abstract

Whiplash syndrome is a quite common pathology and can be defined as a neck injury produced by a sudden acceleration-deceleration, the consequence of which is a sudden forward and backward movement of the head and neck. The main production mechanism is a sudden acceleration-deceleration process that has as a consequence the sudden extension/flexion of the neck. Starting from the many structures involved, the whiplash syndrome is an interdisciplinary challenge (ENT specialist, neurologist, orthopedist, ophthalmologist, psychologist) and can be described by multiple signs and symptoms.

Whiplash syndrome is a complex pathology both through the mechanism of production and symptoms, and through the forensic implications that it has. The interdisciplinary medical collaboration, the implementation of stricter rules on wearing the seat belt and the development by car manufacturers of chairs and head restraints that protect the head and neck of passengers, would be the preventive step in the occurrence and especially the chronicization of these lesions.

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Method of stenting the lacrimal sac after performing dacryocystorhinostomy

Abstract

Lacrimal stents were used in the past to preserve the caliber of the lacrimal pathways after surgery, trauma, reconstruction, etc. Recently, their role in preventing functional epiphora has also been highlighted. Over the years, the stents have evolved and different models, materials and surgical techniques for positioning have appeared. Extensive and accurate knowledge of the type and design of the stent, the correct insertion technique offer optimal results depending on the anatomical area and the type of disorder of the lacrimal pathways. We will present the advantages of a simple catheterization technique for the lacrimal sac, endoscopic post-dacryocystorhinostomy.

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Rhinosinusal mucormycosis: Literature review and some particular cases

Abstract

Rhinosinusal mucormycosis is a life-threatening disease caused by fungus of the order Mucorales, which commonly affects individuals with diabetes and those in immunocompromised states. It is the most common form of mucormycosis with a high mortality rate (50-80%). Treatment options include reversal of the underlying risk factors when it is possible, systemic antifungal medication and radical surgical debridement. Prognosis is reserved because of the high potential of invasiveness, so diagnosis and early treatment are essential.

Herein, we make a review about the most important features of this pathology and we report two cases of rhinosinusal mucormycosis with similar presentations who followed the same treatment protocol – extended surgical debridement of the necrotic tissue combined with systemic antifungal treatment (Amphotericin B). Complete recovery was achieved in one patient, whereas in the other one, due to late presentation, massive extension and incomplete surgical debridement, the disease was complicated with multiple organ dysfunction and cerebral stroke.

By presenting these cases, we would like to point out the importance of early diagnosis, appropriate medical and surgical therapy to obtain a significant survival rate in patients with this fatal disease.

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Olfactory functions in Behçet’s disease: A review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES. We reviewed the relationship between olfactory functions and Behçet’s disease (BD).

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We searched Pubmed, Google, Google Scholar and Proquest Cebtral Database with the key words of “olfactory”, “functions”, “smell”, “nasal” and “Behçet’s disease”.

RESULTS. Behçet’s disease influences the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal inclusion causes mucosal ulcers, pain, burning, nasal obstruction, epistaxis, nasal itching and dysosmia. Nasal cartilage deformity is also reported. The higher rate of comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in BD patients may likewise be because of the complex mechanism of the disease inclining the host tissues to bacterial infections. Olfactory functions may decrease in BD. Odor identification may be lower in patients BD.

CONCLUSION. An olfactory dysfunction may be seen in patients with BD. BD patients should be evaluated for the involvement of the olfactory function and may require treatment because of a malfunction of the olfactory system that influences the quality of life. Neurological involvement associated with BD might play a more important role in causing olfactory dysfunction than mucosal involvement.

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Cystic fibrosis - general review on sinonasal complications and case report

Abstract

An irreversible disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), is responsible for affecting multiple organ systems containing epithelia. It is well known that the sinonasal disease caused by CF has consequences for the incidence of the lower airway exacerbations, as well as affecting the quality of life of those patients. This review provides an update by evaluating the available literature regarding pathogenesis, management and treatment of cystic fibrosis patients. To gain a better view of the disease and obtain a higher life expectancy, further studies are needed.

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