bacteria and fungi: (1) the physical support of surface structures (such as cell wall, mycelium, flagella, and cilia) [ 21 ] and (2) through interactions of secretion or autolysis chemicals (such as signaling molecules, extracellular polysaccharide, protein, and DNA and RNA) to complete the exchange and information transmission of genes and metabolites, change antibiotic resistance, adapt to environment pressures, and express virulencegenes. Given the complexity of the interaction between bacteria and fungi, scarce information can explain the specific mechanisms, which
isolate and there is no correlation between biofilm production and the source of the isolation and the virulence of the bacteria [ 26 ]. The role of biofilms in antimicrobial resistance in B. pseudomallei and possible drug-resistant mechanisms remains unclear. However, recent studies found that stimulation of B. pseudomallei to produce biofilms resulted in upregulation of some genes to be more resistant to antimicrobial agents [ 27 ].
The formation of B. pseudomallei biofilms is a multistep process that requires the participation of structural appendages such as
of the West Nile virus, Borrelia burgdorferi , and other bacterial infections such as Salmonella or Campylobacter , and with them also resistance genes to antibiotics ( 35 ). Studies from the last 10 years have also shown the presence of CoVs in wild birds ( 22 , 24 , 25 , 53 ). Among factors which make birds an excellent reservoir of various pathogens and also a bioreactor contributing to their variability, there are the high biodiversity of bird species, their ecological traits such gathering/grouping during feeding and roosting, but most importantly their
E. Villar-Luna, O. Goméz-Rodriguez, R. I. Rojas-Martínez and E. Zavaleta-Mejía
carrying dominant genes conferring resistance to the three major species of RKNs on tomato ( Mi-1 ), potato ( Mh ), soybeans (Mir1) and pepper (N and Tabasco) ( Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ). Meloidogyne enterolobii has been detected in Africa, Europe, USA, Central and South America ( Brito et al ., 2007 ; Moens et al., 2009 ; Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ); and recently was first reported in Mexico parasitizing watermelon (Veracruz state) and tomato plants (Sinaloa state) ( Ramirez-Suarez et al ., 2014 ; Martinez et al ., 2015 ); however, its presence in other crops
As a common clinical conditional pathogen, UPEC is also known as the molecular fimbrial chaperone/usher pathway (CUP) [ 6 ], and 38 different CUP expression regions have been identified in the gene spectrum of E . coli . A single UPEC strain expresses 12 different fimbrial CUPs [ 7 ]. In a mouse model, type I pili was found to be necessary for supporting UPEC colonization, invasion, and maintenance of continuous infection in the bladder [ 8 ]. After type I pili binds with the FmH adhesion, glycated urinary plaque proteins and α1β3 integrins can be recognized in
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35 Horiuchi T, Ohkusa T, Watanabe M, et al
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Skaug M.A., Helland I., Solvoll K., Saugstad O.D. (2001). Presence of ochratoxin A in human milk in relation to dietary intake. Food Addit. Contam., 18: 321–327.
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species with traditional method remains difficult and in many instances only the analysis of DNA sequences from species in question can provide an accurate identification ( Liu & Berry, 1995 ). Internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit (ITS1 – 5.8S –ITS2) are required to species identification and in phylogenetic studies ( Nguyen et al ., 2001 ; Stock et al ., 2001 ; Hominick, 2002 ; Spiridonow et al ., 2004 ). The ITS region gene sequences has also been used to study among- and intra-population variability of Steinernema