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Geert Bouckaert, Vitalis Nakrošis and Juraj Nemec

Public Administration and Management Reforms in CEE: Main Trajectories and Results

The common feature of CEE systems is that they change drastically. Political systems change, e.g. from dictatorships to democracies, and their elites are removed. Democratic checks and balances are established. State structures are reshuffled, e.g. toward more decentralisation. The economic system changes its nature, e.g. from state monopolies to market systems with private firms. Societal and social systems with NGOs, not-for-profit organisations and citizen action groups are established and are designed for people to participate actively in the public debate and to become stakeholders of their society and their communities (Peters 1996).

To achieve planned changes, CEE countries had to choose their strategies. In focusing on the administration and the management of public systems, five scopes of reform are possible, from very narrow and limited to a very widespread and broad span of reform (Pollitt and Bouckaert 2004). Choosing one of these models has tremendous practical implications for the content of a reform programme, for the choice of the reform projects, for the sequence and timing of the reform portfolio. It also requires different tactical choices to be made. One of the issues is how many degrees of freedom there are to reform the public sector.

Just as in many other countries, mixed strategies have been chosen for public- sector reform in CEE countries, and these choices have changed over time. However, it seems that the span of reform has rather been broad than narrow. It also seems that tactics could have been more visible than strategy because of electoral cycles.

This brings us to the question of the trajectories to move ahead. Our article, heavily based in the joint NISPAcee research project4 tries to respond to some selected dimensions of the question of what the common and different trajectories and selected outcomes of public administration / management reforms are in the CEE region.

Open access

Nadiya Tymkiv


The article states the analysis of the curriculum that regulates the main purposes, essence and directions for petroleum training. The importance and necessity of positive usage of Austrian, English and Norwegian experience at the time of petroleum engineers training in the petroleum industry has been stressed on. The structure and content of curricula in the process of the petroleum engineers training at the universities of pointed out countries have been analyzed. It has been designated that the terms “curriculum” and “programme” are connected with such outstanding British and American scholars as A. Bosanquet, D. Clark, S. Fraser, F. Hunkins, L. Lattuca, M. Linn, G. O’Neill, A. Ornstein, J. Stark et al. Based on their views it has been found out that these papers define the basic goals, meanings and essential rules for training. It has been outlined that an educational program plays a principal part in the organization of higher technical education, both as the way of interplay and as the foundation for judgment and student appraisal. Three beds of curriculum, e.g. national curriculum, internal, or municipal curriculum, university curriculum and annual plan are considered. All these are designed in an accessible, broad and collective methods, thus, educational program is more a series of actions to achieve results than a commodity. In essence, curriculum is a key paper and it considers the comprehension of humankind, community and training; it also combines the work of any university to regional and nationwide tactics. Moreover, lecturers develop their own provincial curricula established on their national certificates. Close attention has been paid to key contextual filters that influence the curriculum planning process. It has been emphasized that a curriculum is formed on future direction and competence-based pertaining to thought; it is integrated and condensed, it joins all fields of training and university activity. The article discloses special aspects of petroleum specialists’ cycle education. The requirements of employers towards HEI graduates’ competences are presented.

Open access

Zbigniew Borysiuk and Zbigniew Waskiewicz

Information Processes, Stimulation and Perceptual Training in Fencing

Learning and development of motor skills and techniques in fencing and other sports with open motor habits are based on perceptual processes involving the senses of vision, touch, and hearing. In fencing, the same stimuli can yield defensive or offensive actions, which are strictly related to the tactics and strategy. Different types of stimulation determine reaction time, movement time, and muscle bioelectric tension (EMG) in fencing. From the training process, controlling the significance of dominant stimuli should be taken into account. The results of presented studies of advanced and novice fencers show that the time of reaction to tactile stimulation is similar or slightly shorter than to acoustic stimuli followed by visual stimuli. The advanced fencers were faster than the novice fencers in all the studied parameters. The EMG signal was significantly lower in case of advanced fencers in all three types of stimulation. It can be a proof that the psycho-motor superiority of elite fencers results in a reduction of the bioelectrical tension of muscles involved in performing the motor tasks. Perceptual skills enable athletes to respond to important signals in sport competition and ignore disrupting ones which lower the effectiveness of sports combat. Time pressure during sports competition makes it necessary to reduce as much as possible the decision-making time and the time of sensorimotor responses in the motor phase. The study results show that experienced athletes make decisions much faster than their novice colleagues. It conforms to the main strategy of perceptual training, (i.e., gaining maximum benefits at the lowest expense). Speed of decision-making is strictly associated with the stimuli detection effectiveness and re-creation of acquired motor patterns.

Open access

Jan Kiehne, Ioana Ceausu, Ann-Katrin Arp and Timm Schüler

Business Review , 60 (4), 95–105. Kolks, U. (1990). Strategieimplementierung . Dt. Univ.-Verl. Wiesbaden. Laux, H. (1990). Risiko, Anreiz und Kontrolle . Heidelberger Lehrtexte . Laux, H. (2007). Entscheidungstheorie, 7., überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Berlin Heidelberg . Lehner, J. (2004). Strategy Implementation Tactics as Response to Organizational, Strategic, and Environmental Imperatives, Management Revue , 15 , 460–480. Mankins, M.C., and Steele, R. (2005). Turning great strategy into great performance, Harvard Business

Open access

Gordana Dobrijević


As men and women have different roles in society, their negotiating styles and behaviours are also different. The success of men and women in negotiations depends largely on the type of negotiation (integrative or distributive) and gender stereotypes prevailing in society. There is a general opinion that women are more cooperative, while men are more aggressive and competitive in negotiations. Our findings from the Serbian setting show a somewhat different picture: women do not use more cooperative strategies and tactics than men. Although men focus on winning, they also focus on problem solving; while women focus on conflict avoidance, and, to a certain extent, on mutual relationship. Women are also more sensitive to their counterpart’s age and gender. But, they are also less sincere in negotiations and focus on their own interests, rather than taking care of their own as well as other party’s interests. A major theoretical implication of this research is that the observed differences in the behaviour of female negotiators reflect the pressure to be successful in a male-dominated society where gender stereotypes are quite prominent.

Open access

Pisk Jernej


Cardinal virtues present one of the oldest anthropological theories and ethical systems in the western philosophical tradition. Among other great ancient philosophers, Plato talked about four main virtues: prudence (practical wisdom), justice, fortitude (courage), and temperance (moderation). As these virtues are not arbitrary, but instead correspond to some fundamental characteristics of human beings, they are not only useful for moral decision-making, but they also present an original anthropological theory. This paper focuses on the role of prudence in sports.

Prudence has two aspects: it is a) cognitive, and b) decision-making. Perceptively it is turned toward reality, “imperatively” toward volition and action. As such, it is a fundamental virtue in sports practices. First of all, its role is in the cognition of the specific situations an athlete is in. In addition, it gives instructions as to how to respond to them. Prudence directed into the cognition of reality involves two main elements, namely memoria and docilitas. The role of memoria consists in developing and enriching special motor memory from past experiences, and so it is one of the goals of any practice of technical elements. Docilitas is the kind of open-mindedness which recognizes the true variety of things and situations to be experienced and does not cage itself in any presumption of deceptive knowledge. As such, it can be recognized in the concept of sports as “knowledge-gaining activity”.

The other aspect of prudence is directed towards deciding what actions to take. With solertia, the athlete can swiftly, but with open eyes and clear-sighted vision, decide to do something good in a concrete situation. The second element is providentia (foresight), meaning the capacity to estimate with a sure instinct for the future whether or not a particular action will lead to the realization of a goal. This is demanded of all sports, especially competitive sports, where the deciding factor between top and average athletes is often not physical or technical abilities but the intellectual capacity (or tactics) to foresee what is going to happen on the field in the next few moments.

Open access

Vytautas Jokubauskas


In the 21st century - as in the first half of the 20th century - Lithuania has faced threats posed to its national security and statehood. Owing to its limited resources, the country is not essentially able to establish large regular forces; therefore, it is permanently developing its territorial defence forces. In the interwar period, their nucleus was formed by the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union, while in the 21st century it is by the National Defence Volunteer Forces. While modelling new concepts of territorial defence, it is inevitable to consider not only the practices of other countries and their military theories but also Lithuania’s national experience. Of course, this is the experience of 1990-2004, but in the first part of the 20th century the idea of territorial defence was also put into practice and cultivated at the theoretical level. Another aspect is that territorial defence in practice is inextricably entwined with the tactics of guerrilla warfare and their application. Lithuania’s historical experience and analysis of its territorial defence and partisan war is not only knowledge for its own sake. It may have tangible practical value since Lithuania considered, premeditated and applied these notions in practice repeatedly in the first half of the 20th century. Furthermore, the geographical location of the country and distribution of eventual sources of conflict in comparison with the interwar period have virtually not changed. In the interwar period, East Prussia, part of Germany and separated by the Polish Corridor, had been a semi-exclave up until September 1939. Similarly, it is only by sea and air that this territory is accessible at present, though now a subject of the Russian Federation as the Kaliningrad region. Due to geopolitical transformations, after World War II the ‘enemy from the East’ had moved geographically to Western Lithuania. There exists a similar situation on the south-eastern border of Lithuania, where a none-too-friendly interwar Poland changed to a Belarus governed by Alexander Lukashenko. Lithuania’s northern border with Latvia, also a NATO member at present, remains unchanged and comparatively safe; in the interwar period, only attempts were made to discuss the idea of having mutual defence although Latvia had planned to provide some support for the Lithuanian forces in the case of a Wehrmacht attack from East Prussia to the East. So it is expedient to elaborate on what attention the Lithuanian Armed Forces in the interwar period paid to the history of war, what kind of experience of the 20th century territorial defence and partisan resistance they gained, and how this may be of value to defence experts in the 21st century.

Open access

Janis Vilmanis, Arturs Ozolins and Janis Gardovskis


Introduction. The liver is a parenchimal abdominal organ with wide variety of primary benign or malignant tumors as well as metastatic tumors.

Aim of the study. Was to evaluate the informativity and usefulness of abdominal ultrasound (US) and computer tomography (CT) imaging results in diagnostics of focal liver lesions.

Material and methods. The study was conducted in Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital. Retrospective analysis of 126 patients with focal liver lesions was performed in the time period of 5 years (2009 till 2014). The medical records of patients with focal liver lesions were analyzed. Primary diagnosis detected by US or CT was evaluated and compared with final morphology after surgical operation or liver biopsy. The obtained results were expressed in percent and analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of CT scan to detect malignant hepatic lesions was estimated and expressed as percentage with 95% confidence interval.

Results. A total of 126 patients with diagnosed liver lesions were included in the study. 96 patients were in the group with performed liver CT scans, with median age of 58.9 years. 30 patients were included in the group with liver US, with median age of 60.1 years. Liver biopsy under US control was performed for 95 patients, but surgical operations with liver resections for 31 patients. 86 patients had malignant liver lesions, but 40 had benign liver lesions. In the US group primary and final diagnosis agreement was in 26 (87%) cases, but diagnosis disagreement in 4 (13%) cases. Diagnosis disagreement was found in 26 (27.1%) cases in the CT group, but agreement was in 70 (72.9%) cases. Overall sensitivity of CT to detect malignant hepatic lesions was 95.2% (95%CI 86.7-98.3%) and specificity was 64.7% (95%CI 47.9-78.5%).

Conclusions. CT is a good imaging method for detection of focal liver lesions. In case of unclear diagnosis, percutaneous liver puncture biopsy is recommended. It is mandatory to develop a unified CT scan and US investigation protocol to improve the quality of investigation as well as further treatment tactics.

Open access

Witold Morawski

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Open access

Kamil Anasiewicz and Maciej Włodarczyk

References Burek, J. and Płodzień, M. (2012). Wysokowydajna obróbka części ze stopów aluminium o złożonych kształtach. Mechanik, No 7, pp. 542-549. Choy, H.S. and Chan, K.W. (2002). Machining tactics for interior corners of pockets. IJAMT, Volume 20(10), pp. 741-748 Jemielniak, K. (2004). Obróbka skrawaniem. Warsaw: Oficyna wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej. Kłonica, M., Kuczmaszewski, J., Matuszak, J., Pałka, T., Pieśko, P., Rusinek, R., Włodarczyk, M., Zagórski, I. and Zaleski, K. (2015