politicians is likely to intensify these effects. Again and again, populists such as Victor Orbán portrayed Muslims as a burden for their host countries’ welfare systems ( Kokot 2015 ). In line with these theoretical arguments, we assume that collective deprivation matters for the support of a Muslim ban.
H9: Individuals who perceive their in-groups as collectively deprived vis-à-vis out-groups are more likely to support a Muslim ban .
At this point, we want to recall that we assume invariant causal effects of the outlined social–psychological drivers of Islamophobia
induced secondary electron emission coefficient, ISEE(Ti) = 0.11, ISEE(Cu) = 0.08 electron per ion, for argon ion energy of about 500 eV [ 39 ]. With the ISEE(Cu) being lower than ISEE(Ti), the discharge voltage is higher in case of copper sputtering ( Fig. 1 ). Taking into account invariant discharge current pulses (constant amplitude, duration time) one can conclude that higher energy is delivered to the magnetron source with each pulse while sputtering copper than titanium. To keep the same average discharge power, the number of pulses in a group has to be lower in
information sensitivity based on general information types, it is more appropriate to measure information sensitivity by taking users’ perception of sensitivity into account. Some scholars define information sensitivity as the perceived intimacy level of information ( Lwin, Wirtz, & Williams, 2007 ). More intimate information is perceived as riskier to disclose because it may lead to potential losses, including psychological (e.g., loss of self-esteem), physical (e.g., loss of health), and material (e.g., loss of property and assets) aspects ( Moon, 2000 ). Therefore, this
, under 50 per cent of workers were covered by individual level pay agreements. No social partnership model has ever been operational in NI. With regard to employment protection, while no standardized measures of employment protection legislation (EPL) are available for NI, data do exist at a UK level. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developments (OECD’s) strictness of employment protection index runs from 0 to 6, where 6 is the strictest level; Ireland’s EPL level in 2013 using this metric was 1.4 compared to the UK’s of 1.1, suggesting that levels of
Brendan McSweeney, Donna Brown and Stravroula Iliopoulou
’ (2006: 923). The postulates they share include – national cultures are: (1) values, defined as invariant transituational preferences; 2 At least five types of cultural theories: psychological, mentalist (or cognitive), textualist, inter-subjectivist, or practice based can be distinguished. On a very basic level, these schools offer opposing locations and conceptions of culture. The school of the national culture as values, excludes all but one type of cultural influence, the psychological, which, it supposes, determines thought, feelings and actions. Even its notion
quantities, whereas medium-skilled migration does not seem to matter. Koenig (2009) confirms the trade-creating effect using firm-level data on French exports. She shows that this effect is enhanced when immigrants are older and more educated.
Finally, Aleksynska and Peri (2014) use a more carefully defined measure of migration business networks to quantify its impact on bilateral trade and to shed light on the information effect of migration on trade. Using data on immigrant occupations from OECD, the DIOC-E database, the authors consider in each country those
) ). Second, the model allows correlation between individual-specific time-invariant effects, corr( u 1 ijt , u 2 ijt ) ≠ 0. To test the significance of the childcare decision variable, I considered two specifications of equation (1) with and without cc ijt . I estimated the system (1, 2) using the bivariate probit model.
The parameters of interests are as follows:
a 1 that measures the impact of the reform on mothers’ employment participation at extensive margin and
a 3 that measures changes in labor supply of females who worked prior to a childbirth. Given
, we only consider simple (molecular) graphs which are finite, loopless, and without multiple edges. Let G = ( V ( G ), E ( G )) be a graph in which the vertex set and edge set are expressed as V ( G ) and E ( G ), respectively. Readers can refer Bondy and Mutry [ 3 ] for any notations and terminologies used but not clearly explained in our paper.
The first Zagreb index can be regarded as one of the oldest graph invariants which was defined in 1972 by Gutman and Trinajsti [ 11 ] as
M 1 ( G ) = ∑ v ∈ V ( G ) d 2 ( v ) ,
models, I used both fixed-effects and random-effects estimations. The Hausman test suggested that fixed-effects model is more effective. But because of ‘within transformation’, it is not possible to analyse the effect of time-invariant variables. Also, the fixed-effect analysis focuses on changes and presents the determinants of changes in studied spending, whilst the goal of this article is to find the determinants of variations between municipalities ( Clark and Linzer 2015 ; Bell and Jones 2015 ). The basic equation estimated in our models is
and they are typically formulated in tensorial form by using the classical framework of continuum mechanics. Continuum constitutive equations can also be formulated in vectorial form through the microplane theory ( Taylor, 1938 ), which has a number of advantages over tensorial formulations. Microplane models do not need to be formulated as functions of macroscopic stress and strain tensor invariants ( Bažant and Oh, 1985 ) and the principle of frame indifference, however, is satisfied by using micro-planes that sample (without bias) all possible orientations in the