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Krystian Zawadzki

User’s Guide. Environmental Science and Technology, 8, 1413-1418. Carson, R. T., Flores, N. E., Meade, N. F. (2001). Contingent Valuation: Controversies and Evidence, Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 19, p. 173-210. Castellanos, P., Sánchez, J. M. (2007). The Economic Value of a Sports Club for a City: Empirical Evidence from the Case of a Spanish Football Team. Urban Public Economics Review, 7, 13-39. Coates, D., Humphreys, B. R. (2003). The Effect of Professional Sport on Earnings and Employment in the

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Alekhya Tirumala and Basavaraj Motimath

References 1. Ekblom B., Applied Physiology of Soccer. Sports Med, 1986, 3 (1), 50-60, doi: 10.2165/00007256-198603010-00005. 2. Kunz M., 265 million playing football. FIFA Magazine, July 2007, 10-15. Available from: http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/fifafacts/bcoffsurv/emaga_9384_10704.pdf. 3. Mohr M., Assessment of training and game load in team sports. University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Available from: http://legacyus.powerbar.nastage.com/psnn/pdf/1.pdf 4. Jovanovic M., Sporis G., Omrcen D

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Brad Vickers and Linda Schoenstedt

Identity Formation throughout Varying Levels of Coaching Expertise

Identity formation considers the evolving individuality within a community of practice in which the individual may alter personality characteristics dependent upon the expectations of other community members (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Therefore, individuals must be able to manage their image in relation to the other members of the community to have full access to the knowledge within that community. The purpose of this study was to analyze the peer interactions of novice, intermediate, and expert football coaches to gain a better understanding of their peer interactions with regard to knowledge acquisition. Six coaches participating in a football Nike Coach of the Year Clinic were selected to participate based on their level of expertise. Data were collected via clinic observations and audio recorded interviews that were transcribed and inductively analyzed revealing that a) socialization; b) appearance; and c) participation, decisions greatly affected the participants' interactions and subsequently knowledge acquisition.

Open access

D Domańska-Senderowska, A Snochowska, P Szmigielska, Z Jastrzębski, A Jegier, J Kiszałkiewicz, K Dróbka, J Jastrzębska, D Pastuszak-Lewandoska, P Cięszczyk, A Maciejewska-Skrendo, P Zmijewski and E Brzeziańska-Lasota

University of Lodz Ethics Committee (RNN/157/16/KE). All participants gave full written informed consent prior to commencement of the study. Twenty-two young male football players (17.5±0.7 years, 178±0.7 cm, 68.05±9.18 kg) participated in the study. Before the experiment, all the players took part in the 2 months of preliminary training. This experiment took place during 2 months training cycle (from middle of April to middle of June 2016). All the players were subjected to the same football training that consisted of strength, speed and endurance exercises. The typical

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Miguel Saavedra García, Óscar Gutiérrez Aguilar, Paulo Sa Marques, Gabriel Torres Tobío and Juan J. Fernández Romero

-478 Barnett V, Hilditch S. The effect of an artificial pitch surface on home team performance in football (soccer). J Roy Stat Soc A Sta , 1993; 156: 39-50 Bray SR. The home advantage from an individual team perspective. J Appl Sport Psychol , 1999; 11: 116-125 Bray SR, Obara J, Kwan M. Batting last as a home advantage factor in men’s NCAA tournament baseball. J Sport Sci , 2005; 23(7): 681-686 Brown TD, Van Raalte JL, Brewer BW, Winter CR, Cornelius AE, Andersen MB. World Cup soccer home advantage. J Sport Behav , 2002

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Tomasz Chamera, Michał Spieszny, Tomasz Klocek, Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Robert Nowak, Milena Lachowicz, Rafał Buryta, Krzysztof Ficek, Jerzy Eider, Waldemar Moska and Paweł Cięszczyk

References 1. Banfi G, Colombini A, Lombardi G, Lubkowska A. Metabolic markers in sports medicine. Adv Clin Chem 2012; 56: 1-54. 2. Fallon KE. The clinical utility of screening of biochemical parameters in elite athletes: analysis of 100 cases. Br J Sports Med 2008; 42: 334-7. 3. Cazzola R, Russo-Volpe S, Cervato G, Cestaro B. Biochemical assessments of oxidative stress, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and antioxidant status in professional football players and sedentary controls. Eur J Clin Invest 2003; 33: 924

Open access

Baljinder Bal and Gaurav Dureja

Hawk Eye: A Logical Innovative Technology Use in Sports for Effective Decision Making

The present study aims at explaining hawk eye technology in sports with regard to their latest trends in the sporting arena. This is one of the most commonly used technologies in the various sports. It has been put to a variety of uses, such as providing a way to collect interesting statistics, construct very suggestive visual representations of the game play and even helping viewers to better understand the umpiring decisions. The Hawk-eye is one such technology which is considered to be really top indentation in various sports. The necessary idea is to monitor the trajectory of the ball during the entire duration of play. We will see how the Hawk-eye technology successfully treats each of these issues and provides a robust system to be used in practice. The Hawk-eye system was developed as a replay system, originally for TV Broadcast coverage. We have thus seen that the Hawk-eye is a great innovation, which puts technology to good use in the field of sports. The international scenario of hawk eye has been discussed while analyzing the data of hawk eye software for reliable decision. The technology is used widely these days, in sports such as Tennis and Cricket. The accuracy which can be achieved with the use of the system is making the authorities think seriously about reducing the human error component involved in important decisions. Hawk eye (artificial judgement) is very excellent and superb decision making power as compared to human being (natural judgement). Hawk-Eye software team is already working on the implementing system for basketball, football, badminton and snooker.

Open access

.4.259. 12. Garganta J. Analyse the match in the collective sports games. A common concern for coach and researcher [in Portuguese]. Horizonte. 1998;14(83):7-14. 13. González-Víllora S, García-López LM, Contreras-Jordán OR. Decision making and skill development in youth football players. Rev Int Med Cienc Act. 2015;15(59): 467-487; doi: 10.15366/rimcafd2015.59.005. 14. Thomas KT, Thomas JR. Developing expertise in sport: the relation of knowledge and performance. Int J Sport Psychol. 1994;25(3):295-312. 15. Serra-Olivares J

Open access

Sorin Brîndescu

Abstract

The stage reached nowadays in the development of the game of football throughout the world, as a result of the effort and concern of specialists and players for continuous improvement of the game, inevitably led to the development of new well-established ideas and solutions about the manner of playing, the game and training system, the selection and promotion of players. All this made the performance level be very high at present, both nationally and especially internationally, and this can only be achieved by players whose performance capacity is particularly large and growing. A special contribution in solving these problems has been brought and will be brought further by scientific research, both the fundamental one which studies essentially the mass basis of performance football in all its conceptual complexity, and the applicative one which addresses more limiting issues but still definite, specific to the practice and methodology of football at this level. Moreover, until now there have been numerous studies with an applicative nature joined by many specialists worldwide through research studies conducted over the years. Thus, it can be appreciated that most of the issues regarding the effective contact time with the ball are identified by the manner in which the possession of the ball is gained and lost. Therefore, we compared the two competitions, the players involved, depending on their position in a team. We want the results to be mostly a support for the advanced training of football players at all divisionary levels, with the possibility of achieving specific training plans and stages.

Open access

Magni Mohr and Peter Krustrup

support was granted for the study. References Bangsbo J, Mohr M, Krustrup P. Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player. J Sports Sci , 2006; 24: 665-674 10.1080/02640410500482529 Bangsbo J Mohr M Krustrup P. Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player J Sports Sci 2006 24 665 674 Bangsbo J, Mohr M. Fitness Testing in Football . Copenhagen: Bangsbosport, 1-167; 2012 Bangsbo J Mohr M Fitness Testing in Football Copenhagen Bangsbosport 1 167 2012 Bangsbo J, Mohr M