References Chen, G. (1998). A study on subjects taught in American nationwide university self-defense courses. Journal of International Council of Health, Physical Education, Recreation-Sport and Dance, XXXV (1), 28-33. Chen, G. (1999a). How much American elementary school students know about self-defense, Journal of International Council of Health, Physical Education, Recreation-Sport and Dance, XXXV (4), 58-61. Chen, G. (1999b). A study of self-defense education of American high
Doaa Abd El-Moneim
., & Short, J. (1989). The electronic academic village. Journal of Teacher Education, 40 (4), 27-31. Calvert, T., Wilke, L., Ryman, R., & Fox, I. (2005). Applications of computers to dance. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 6-10. Fratianni, J., Decker, R., & Korver-Baum, B. (1990). Technology: Are future teachers being prepared for the 21st century? Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 6 (4), 15-23. Goulimaris, D., Koutsouba, M., & Giosos, Y. (2008). Organisation of a distance postgraduate dance programme and the
Since the New Globe Theatre opened in 1996, they have used the yard as an acting area or entrances. Even though the authenticity of using the yard is disputable, nobody denies that the yard must be a very effective tool for performing Shakespeare at the Globe Theatre. The yard is an essential part of traditional Korean theatre, called “talchum (mask dance)” or “talnori (mask play).” The yard is its stage as well as the auditorium. Therefore, the players are surrounded by the audience, and the players can, and often do interact with the audience, speaking to the audience, or treating them as players, or acting as if they were some of the audience. The theatrical style of using the yard has much influenced the modern theatre of Korea. And many Korean directors including Oh Tae-suk, Yang Jung-ung, Sohn Jin-chaek, Park Sung-hwan, and myself, have applied the yard techniques to their Shakespearean productions. Korean Shakespearean productions, which use the yard actively, can be more evidence that the yard must be an effective tool for Shakespeare, not only at the Globe Theatre but also at any kind of theatres of today. No one knows whether Shakespeare actually used the yard or not. But the fact that many Shakespearean productions have used the yard successfully, implies that Shakespeare's texts themselves have enough room for the yard.
Marcin Ściślak, Andrzej Rokita and Marek Popowczak
Purpose. Students’ interest in various forms of physical activity (individual and team sports) is known to differ depending on sex, place of residence, age, the time of year, and many other factors. The aim of the present study was to further analyze this issue on a group of secondary school students and to search for relationships between interest in different sports and sex, age and the school they attend. Methods. A standardized diagnostic questionnaire was administered to 475 first-, second-, and thirdyear students attending two randomly chosen secondary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Results. Significant differences in the interests of the analyzed group were found in regards to sex, age, and school. Girls were more interested in dancing, swimming, downhill skiing and hiking. Boys preferred team sports, swimming, downhill skiing, and martial arts. Conclusions. It seems advisable to identify and implement which physical activities secondary school students find most interesting in existing physical education curriculum so as to help develop positive attitude towards physical culture in later life.
Trends in development of folklore studies in the research and education space at Ukrainian and foreign universities have been analyzed. They are fundamentalization, synthesis of academic science and educational practice, professionalization, institutionalization, humanitarization, anthropoligization, interdisciplinarity. It has been defined that in Ukrainian and foreign folkloristic discourse of the 20th – the beginning of the 21th centuries, folklore is studied through the prism of functional, communicative, anthropological, context-based approaches that is partially realized in the official definition of folklore according to the 1989 UNESCO Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore. It has been found out that while structuring the content of folkloristic disciplines as well as directing future specialists’ researches the multivectoring of folklore studies allows instructors to use the achievements of folkloristic directions that were formed in historical retrospective and actively developed at the modern stage: linguofolkloristics, ethnomusicology, folk therapy (folk music therapy, fairytale therapy, folk dance therapy), etc. It has been justified that folklore studies in Ukrainian and foreign research and education space is being developed as an interdisciplinary science based on the historical and pedagogical experience and taking into account modern integration processes that define the problematics of the content of folkloristic, culturological training of future pedagogue-researcher who is to be educated as a man of culture, nationally aware and, at the same time, multicultural personality.
Tomasz Mieczan, Dorota Górniak, Aleksander Świątecki, Marek Zdanowski, Monika Tarkowska−Kukuryk and Małgorzata Adamczuk
There are hardly any data concerning the vertical micro−distribution of protozoa in water column in cryoconite holes on the glacier surface. Such comparisons can provide in− sights into the ecology of protozoa. The present research wasmade on Ecology Glacier (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic); vertical microzonation of ciliates in relation to physical and chemical parameters in cryoconite holes was studied. The density and biomass of protozoans significantly differed between the studied stations (cryoconite holes), with the lowest num− bers in the surface water and the highest in the bottom water. The surface waters were domi− nated by mixotrophic and omnivorous taxa,whereas the deepest sampling level has shown the increase of the proportion of bacterivore species. Ordination analysis indicated that TN and P−PO4 can strongly regulate the abundance and species composition of protozoa. The redun− dancy analyses (RDA) showed that the ciliate communities can be separated into two groups. The first group included species associated with surface water: Halteria grandinella and Codonella sp. The second group included species that are associated with bottom water: Prorodon sp., Holosticha pullaster, Stylonychia mytilus−complex and small scuticociliates.
Bogdan Yanev Aminkov, Nikolay Hristov Mehandzhiyski, Nadya Zlatozarova Zlateva-Panayotova, Konstantin Bogdanov Aminkov and Georgi Marinov Marinov
The goal of the present study was to monitor the physiological effects of a standardized balanced anesthetic protocol in brown bears (Ursus arctos) during routine dental procedures. Physiological parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation) were evaluated in twelve brown bears, anesthetized with a balanced drug combination for 90 minutes during dental procedures. The animals were kept in the „Park for Dancing Bears“ Belitza, Bulgaria. A standardized premedication protocol of a combined intramuscular injection of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (Zoletil 100® Virbac, France) 1mg/kg, medetomidine HCl 0.003mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg of butorphanol was administered intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced intravenously with a combined bolus of ketamine at 2 mg/kg and propofol at 2 mg/kg, and maintained with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine at 0.8 mg/kg/h and propofol 0.04 at mg/kg/min. Rectal temperature decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas: heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were stable with no significant changes in these parameters for the duration of anesthesia. In conclusion, this anesthetic drug combination is suitable for oral surgery of medium duration in brown bears.
César de Souza Santos, Samária Cader, Estélio Dantas and Maria Moreira
Physical fitness of post-menopausal women submitted to a physical activities programme
Study aim: To evaluate the effects of the ‘Menopause-in-Shape Programme’ on physical fitness of elderly women.
Material and methods: A group of 323 elderly women lodged in the House for the Elderly participated in a 10-month programme (dancing or walking) and formed the experimental group. Another group of 289 elderly women (control) were sedentary throughout the study. All of them aged 60 - 89 years. Both groups were subjected to the Fullerton Functional Fitness Test battery: chair stand test (CST), arm curl test (ACT), 6-min walk test (6-WT), 2-min step test (2-ST), chair sit and reach test (SRT), scratch test (SCT) and 8-foot up and go test (8-UG).
Results: In the experimental group, improvements were noted in CST (by 11.7%; p<0.001), ACT (by 9%; p<0.001), 2-ST (by 2.2%; p<0.001) and 8-UG (by 0.4%; p<0.05) but not in somatic variables. No significant changes were noted in the control group.
Conclusions: The Menopause-in-Shape Programme is an efficient tool in improving physical fitness of elderly women even if no somatic effects can be expected.
Romeu Mendes, Nelson Sousa, Nuno Garrido, Braulio Cavaco, Luís Quaresma and Victor Machado Reis
This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twentythree healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion.
The aim of our study was to determine changes in sport and motor performance of competitors in the category of children’s fitness as a result of conditioning training intervention. We conducted a two-group simultaneous experiment. Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) consisted of 18 girls competing in the 12 to 15 years old age categories. EG performed supervised conditioning program over a period of 25 weeks with training frequency 3 times per week. Based on the results of physical tests, competitive and expert assessments of sport performance in the children’s fitness category we found significant effect of our conditioning program to increase sport and motor performance in the experimental group. Subsequently, these improvements could lead to success in domestic and international competitions where they occupied the leading positions. Significant relationships (EG = 19; CG = 10) were found between competitive and expert assessments as well as physical tests results, between expert and competitive assessments of physiques and routines. These changes manifested positively not only in the competitive assessment of the physique but also in the expert “blind“ assessment in the competitive discipline of the physique presentation in quarter turns where we observed significant improvements in the EG. Based on the obtained results we recommend to increase the ratio of conditioning training to gymnastic-dance training to 50 %, inclusion of strengthening and plyometric exercises into the training process and monitor regularly the level of general and specific abilities of the competitors in the individual mezocycles of the annual training cycle.