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Wiesława Kranc, Maurycy Jankowski, Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Ronza Khozmi, Artur Bryja, Sylwia Borys, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Michal Jeseta, Magdalena Magas, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus P. Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty

. 1988. 15. Murray, S. C. and Smith, T. T., “Sperm interaction with fallopian tube apical membrane enhances sperm motility and delays capacitation,” Fertil. Steril. , vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 351-357, Aug. 1997. 16. Joshi, M. S., “Isolation, cell culture, and characterization of oviduct epithelial cells of the cow,” Microsc. Res. Tech. , vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 507-518, Aug. 1995. 17. Joshi, M. S., “Isolation, cell culture and immunocytochemical characterization of oviduct epithelial cells of the cow.,” J. Reprod. Fertil. , vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 249-61, May

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Hamid Yaghooti, Mohsen Firoozrai, Soudabeh Fallah and Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh

in vascular smooth muscle cells. Regulatory Peptides. 2008; 147: 37-44. 11. Higuchi S, Ohtsu H, Suzuki H, Shirai H, Frank GD, Eguchi S. Angiotensin II signal transduction through the AT1 receptor: novel insights into mechanisms and pathophysiology. Clinical Science. 2007; 112:417-28. 12. Das UN. Is angiotensin-II an endogenous proinflammatory molecule? Med Sci Monit. 2005; 11: RA155-162. 13. Mogi M, Iwai M, Horiuchi M. Emerging concepts of regulation of angiotensin II receptors, new players and targets for traditional

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Marcin Samiec and Maria Skrzyszowska

., Rasmussen T.P. (2009). Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms during preimplantation development. Birth Defects Res. C, 87: 297-313. Cui W., Wylie D., Aslam S., Dinnyes A., King T., Wilmut I., Clark A.J. (2003). Telomerase- immortalized sheep fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by nuclear transfer to undergo early development. Biol. Reprod., 69: 15-21. Dean W., Santos F., Reik W. (2003). Epigenetic reprogramming in early mammalian development and following somatic nuclear transfer. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol., 14: 93-100. Deshmukh R

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Ying Luo, Yan Lin and Xiao Han

References 1. Kitamura T, Nakae J, Kitamura Y, Kido Y, Biggs WH 3rd, Wright CV, et al. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 links insulin signaling to Pdx1 regulation of pancreatic beta cell growth. J Clin Invest. 2002; 110: 1839-47. 2. Sussel L, Kalamaras J, Hartigan OCDJ, Meneses JJ, Pedersen RA, Rubenstein JL, et al. Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells. Development. 1998; 125:2213-21. 3. Sander M, Sussel L, Conners

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Liuping Zhang, Genbao Shao and Yaoqian Pan

impact Leydig cell differentiation. Biol Reprod. 2010; 83: 488-501. 11. Cherradi N, Rossier MF, Vallotton MB, Timberg R, Friedberg I, Orly J, et al. Submitochondrial distribution of three key steroidogenic proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450scc and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase enzymes) upon stimulation by intracellular calcium in adrenal glomerulosa cells. J Biol Chem. 1997; 272: 7899-907. 12. Stocco DM. Recent advances in the role of StAR. Rev Reprod. 1998; 3:82-5. 13. Walsh

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Pavel E. Stanchev, Maria M. Orbetzova, Dora D. Terzieva, Delyana Davcheva, Dimitar A. Iliev, Sava V. Petrov, Daniela I. Koleva and Boyan I. Nonchev

0431 improves islet graft survival in diabetic NOD mice partially via T-cell modulation. Diabetes 2009; 58: 641-51. 17. Meier JJ, Bhusham A, Butler AE, et al. Sustained beta-cell apoptosis in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes: indirect evidence for islet regeneration? Diabetologia 2005; 48: 2221-8. 18. Nielsen LR, Rehfeld JF, Pedersen-Bjergaard U, et al. Pregnancy-induced rise in serum C-peptide concentrations in women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 1052-7. 19. Gangemi A, Salehi P, Hatipoglu B, et al. Islet transplantation

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R.-G. Mihăilă

; 45 : 713-718. 19. ALI SA, SHAH V, McKINNON R, VAN HARN M, JANAKIRAMAN N. Frequent expression of C4d in hepatic graft-versus-host disease: potential clue for diagnosis and distinguishing acute and chronic form. Transpl Immunol. 2010; 23 : 77-80. 20. MIYAZAKI T , DOY M, UNNO R, HONDA A, IKEGAMI T, ITOH S, et al . Regulatory T cells and liver pathology in a murine graft versus host response model. Hepatol Res. 2009; 39 : 585-594. 21. BRANDON JA, PEREZ J, JENNINGS CD, COHEN DA, SINDHAVA VJ, BONDADA S, et al. Association between chronic liver

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Muyao Zhang, Xing Wei and Zhenfei Wang

of the open reading frame in the HBV genome is a soluble multi-functional 17 kDa protein composed of 154 amino acids [ 5 ]. It is named “X” as no known protein has been found with homology to it. It has wide trans-activation functions that activate multiple regulatory genes of HBV and the infected cells [ 5 ]. HBx is distributed in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and mitochondria of infected hepatocytes and mainly located in the cytoplasm. HBx in different locations plays different biological functions [ 6 ]. It plays an important role in viral genome replication

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Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Rafał Buryta and Robert Nowak

-induced muscle damage that can result in a release of inflammatory signalling molecules and myocellular enzymes into the blood plasma ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). Some of the most important components of the immune system are B and T lymphocytes. A number of T cell subsets, e.g. T naïve, T memory, T helper/inducer (Th), T suppressor/cytotoxic (Tc), T regulatory (Treg) has been described. A common feature of these cells is an expression of membrane surface receptors including T-cell receptor (TCR), CD3 and CD2. Taking the functionality into account, the Th (CD4 + ) cells are

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K. Obremski

zearalenone on reproductive system cell proliferation in gilts. Pol J Vet Sci 6: 239-245. Polanczyk MJ, Carson BD, Subramanian S, Afentoulis M, Vandenbark AA, Ziegler SF, Offner H (2004) Cutting edge: estrogen drives expansion of the CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell compartment. J Immunol 173: 2227-2230. Salem ML (2004) Estrogen, a double-edged sword: modulation of TH1- and TH2-mediated inflammations by differential regulation of TH1/TH2 cytokine production. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 3: 97-104. Sattar Ansar A (2000) The