.S., McNamara, J.P., Hillers, J.K. (1993). Relationships of body condition score to production variables in high producing Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 3410-3419. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77679-1
18. Bewley, J.M., Schutz, M.M. (2008). Review: An interdisciplinary review of body condition scoring for dairy cattle. Professional Animal Scientist 24, 507-529.
19. Garnsworthy, P. (2008). Influences of body condition on fertility and milk yield. In: Proc dairy cattle reproduction council convention, 63-72.
CHARM score to predict mortality in patients with suspected sepsis. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2017;35(4):640-646.
7. Kim Y, Song J, Kim E, Choi H, Jeong W, Jung I et al. A Simple Scoring System Using the Red Blood Cell Distribution Width, Delta Neutrophil Index, and Platelet Count to Predict Mortality in Patients With Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine. 2018;34(2):133-139.
8. Yeh C, Chen K, Ye J, Huang C. Derivation of a clinical prediction rule for bloodstream infection mortality of patients visiting the
Introduction: The objective of this study was to describe a laparoscopic abomasal cannulation (LAC) technique, and compare the extent of the surgical trauma after LAC and open abomasal cannulation (OAC) by examining postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores and serum values of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α in sheep. Material and Methods: Twelve healthy ewes, weighing 38-43 kg, were used. Three-portal laparoscopic techniques were used for LAC procedures. OAC was performed by a right flank laparotomy. Results: Abomasal cannulation was accomplished in all sheep without major intraoperative and postoperative complications. The abomasal contents were collected easily in both groups. Comparative studies found that open procedures exhibit a more pronounced short-term increase in cytokines and significantly higher VAS pain scores than the corresponding laparoscopic procedures. Conclusion: The laparoscopic technique proved to be less traumatic than the conventional open technique.
In order to judge the quality of tobacco leaf, it is necessary to conduct sensory smoke evaluations. However, these are subjective and the results are difficult to quantify. Therefore, we have attempted to establish a quantitative method for evaluating tobacco quality by comparing results of headspace analysis. Forty-seven leaf samples of different types (flue-cured, Burley, Oriental) were analyzed. The first step in this study was to have a panel of experts smoke cigarettes made from the test tobaccos and have them evaluate 10 sensory attributes. The scores were then analyzed by the technique of principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the score for the flavor note attribute indicated the type of tobacco and the scores of the other 9 attributes were combined as a total to indicate smoking quality. Following the sensory study, headspace vapors of the test tobaccos were analyzed with a headspace sampler, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy system (HS-GC-MS), in which the gas sampling loop and the HS-GC transfer line were deactivated. In order to obtain conditions for good reproducibility, the heating temperature and time of the headspace vials were examined. PCA was performed for the headspace vapor (HSV) analysis results for 31 selected peaks. The first and second principal components could be used to classify tobacco types. The third principal component partially indicated differences of smoking qualities. Finally, multiple regression analysis was performed on the HSV analysis results in order to estimate the smoking quality scores. The regression model of all samples combined had a low regression coefficient. Then, we separated the results of the three tobacco types, as we considered that the headspace data might reveal information about the classifications themselves. The final outcome was a regression model that could be applied to each type with a higher accuracy. The variables that entered the models were compared.
Jan Dick, Amani Al-Assaf, Chris Andrews, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado, Elli Groner, Ľuboš Halada, Zita Izakovičová, Miklós Kertész, Fares Khoury, Dušanka Krasić, Kinga Krauze, Giorgio Matteucci, Viesturs Melecis, Michael Mirtl, Daniel E. Orenstein, Elena Preda, Margarida Santos-Reis, Rognvald I. Smith, Angheluta Vadineanu, Sanja Veselić and Petteri Vihervaara
The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i) describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii) test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER) sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net) including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%). Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i) this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii) this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii) further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.
S Dagnon, R Tasheva, A Stoilova, D Christeva and A Edreva
Levels of valeric acids (isovaleric and 3-methylvaleric) in leaves and smoke of different tobacco types were quantified by capillary gas chromatography (GC) using flame ionization detector (FID). The aroma characteristics of the smoke were scored by sensory evaluation. It was found that leaves of Oriental and burley tobaccos contain higher amounts of both valeric acid derivatives than Virginia tobaccos containing isovaleric acid but no 3-methylvaleric acid. Strong correlation between the aroma and pleasantness scores of smoke and the content of valeric acids in the leaves of Oriental tobaccos was observed, while it was not the case for leaves of Virginia and burley tobaccos. In all tobacco types no correlation between smoking characteristics and the content of valeric acids in the smoke was established. Regression models involving leaf isovaleric acid were developed that can be used to evaluate aroma and pleasantness of smoke in Oriental tobaccos. The data obtained allow the following conclusions to be drawn: a) 3-methylvaleric acid may be a chemical marker to distinguish Virginia tobaccos from Oriental and burley tobaccos; b) isovaleric acid content in leaves of Oriental tobaccos may be used for objective aroma evaluation that can be exploited for breeding and market purposes.
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Krzysztof Kwit, Kinga Urbaniak and Zygmunt Pejsak
The kinetics of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute protein (Pig-MAP) response in pigs co-infected with H3N2 swine influenza virus (SwH3N2) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bbr) was studied, with assessment of potential correlations between the concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) in serum samples, lung lesions, and the clinical course of the disease in co-infected pigs. The standard bacteriological methods for detection of Bbr and PCR technique for identification of Bbr and SwH3N2 were used. The serum concentrations of APPs were measured using ELISA. The concentration of CRP, SAA, and Pig-MAP was significantly higher from 2 to 4 or 5 dpi. The concentration of Hp was elevated until the end of the study. Significant correlations were found between the serum concentration of SAA and Pig-MAP and clinical score, and between the concentration of SAA and lung score. Apart from their potential as biological markers for co-infections, SAA and Pig-MAP levels have additive value since they are related to the severity of infection. The results indicate that measurement of APP (i.e SAA) may prove valuable in assessing the severity of respiratory infection in pigs, and may be of supportive value in the clinical evaluation of animals and in the selection of more appropriate treatment.
Anna Rizzolo, Maristella Vanoli, Giulia Bianchi, Angelo Zanella, Maurizio Grassi, Alessandro Torricelli and Lorenzo Spinelli
‘Braeburn’ apples from three harvests after 6-month storage in controlled atmosphere were measured at 670 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS), ranked on decreasing μa670 (increasing maturity), classified as less (LeM), medium and more mature (MoM), randomised into three batches per harvest and analysed after 1, 8 and 14 days of shelf life. LeM and MoM apples were measured in the 630-900 nm range by TRS, and analysed for sensory profile (firm, crispy, juicy, mealy) and pulp mechanical characteristics (firmness, stiffness, energy-to-rupture). All data were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). According to sensory intensity scores, fruits were either divided into five classes (very low – VL; low – L; medium – M; high – H; very high – VH) separately for every attribute, or clustered into four groups, each one representing a specific sensory profile. The absorption spectra showed a maximum at 670 nm (chlorophyll-a) and μa670 was higher in the VH class for firm, crispy and juicy and in the VL and L classes for mealy. The scattering spectra had a decreasing trend with the wavelength increase, and μs’ values were lower in the VH class for firm and crispy, and higher in the VH class for mealy and in the VL ones for juicy. PCA underlined that μs’ values were negatively related to firmness and μa670, and that μa690, μa730, μa830, μa850 and μa900 were opposed to mealiness. PC scores differed among the four sensory profiles and increased from VL to VH classes for firmness, crispiness and juiciness and from VH to VL classes for mealiness.
Hirotsu, C. (1982). Use of cumulative efficient scores for testing ordered alternatives in discrete models. Biometrika 69:567-577.
Hirotsu, C. (2013). Theory and its application of the cumulative, two-way cumulative and doubly cumulative sum statistics. Jap. J. Appl. Statist. 42:121-143. (In Japanese)
Hirotsu, C. and Marumo, K. (2002). Change point analysis as a method for isotonic inference. Scand. J. Statist. 29:125-138.
Hirotsu, C., Yamamoto, S. and Tsuruta, H. (2016). A unifying
Irena Celeska, Aleksandar Janevski, Igor Dzadzovski, Igor Ulchar and Danijela Kirovski
The peripartal period in Holstein dairy cows is critical, due to the transition from pregnancy to lactation. We have studied the dynamics of biochemical parameters from day 5 before to day 60 after calving. The study included 10 multiparous Holstein cows, examined at days -5, 5, 10, 30 and 60 relative to calving. Blood samples were taken from vena jugularis. Analyzed biochemical parameters were glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin, albumin, total protein, urea, NEFA and BHBA. Milk production and body condition score were also estimated. Obtained results showed that cows were exposed to mild to marked metabolic distress. Energy status was changed due to increased values of NEFA and BHBA and decreased value of glucose after calving. Protein concentrations were increased at day 10 after calving, despite the decrease of the level of albumin. Urea concentrations before and after calving were within physiological range indicating an optimal protein diet. Increased values of total bilirubin at day 5 after calving indicated liver increased activity. Lipid status presented by triglycerides and total cholesterol revealed no differences in blood concentrations. Milk production was highest at day 30 after calving. BCS were highest in dry cows, thereafter they declined and recovered at day 60 after calving.
In conclusion, biochemical parameters can be used as relevant indicators of metabolic distress in cows around calving with milk and BCS recording as aside parameters. Changes in some biochemical parameters indicate liver increased activity and metabolic stress, that could lead to decreased milk production, impaired reproductive performance and, finally, to illness.