Myrtill Gráff, Edit Mikó, Bence Zádori and József Csanádi
Squacquerone Italian fresh cheeses by ICP-OES. Elsevier Food Control, 17, 229-233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.10.010
6. Branca, A. & Casu, S. (1989). Body condition score annual evolution and its relationship with body reserves in Sarda goat, 215-231, in: L’évaluation des ovins et des caprins méditerranéens, Symposium “Philoetios”, Flamant J.C., Morand-Fehr P. (eds.), Rapport EUR 11893, Luxembourg: Opoce
7. Vacca, G.M., Ouled, H., Pazzola, M., Dettori, M.L. & Carcangiu, V. (2009). An investigation on allele frequency at the CSN1S2
Results of a provenance trial of Acacia nilotica Willd. ex Del. laid out in 1993 at Tropical Forest Research Institute Campus, Jabalpur (23°N lat., 79°E long. and 400 m altitude) Madhya Pradesh, a semi-arid region of India are reported and discussed. Nineteen provenances from India, Pakistan, Sudan, Senegal and Yemen were evaluated in the field at age three and six years. Local source of A. nilotica (S.F.R.I., Jabalpur) was used as check material for comparison. Significant differences between the provenances (P < 0.05) were observed for height, diameter at breast height (DBH), number of branches and field survival. The provenances from Gujrat (Punjab), Pakistan, ranked first for growth traits namely height, DBH and survival. The next superior provenance was from Beihan, Yemen, which scored second highest values of height and DBH and had good survival at age six years. Results indicate that genetic differences exist between the provenances of A.nilotica. None of the traits assessed (viz. height, DBH, number of branches, inter-nodal length and survival) were found to correlate with any of the geographical coordinates of the provenances (latitude, longitude and altitude). Height, DBH and number of branches showed significant and positive correlation with each other. Fair differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variability were observed. Heritability values were found fairly good for height, DBH and number of branches as compared to inter-nodal length. The relative performance of these provenances was fairly consistent throughout the period of observation at three and six year. The two sources viz. Gujrat (Punjab), Pakistan and Beihan, Yemen, are recommended for plantation programme under semi-arid conditions.
Well-adapted, high quality reproductive material is key to the success of forest plantations. Consequently in many countries the collection and trade of forest reproductive material is regulated. Paper documents are usually the only evidence for the origin of forest reproductive material. Certification schemes already established in Germany use genetic inventories to compare reference samples collected at different steps of the chain-ofcustody. A new approach using DNA-fingerprints efficiently controls the origin of seed sources without these multiple reference samples. Only a sample of adult trees within the seed stands is needed. The control is directly made for each suspicious plant or a group of suspicious plants by use of multilocus genotype assignment. We made a field test with samples of adults and seedling from 5 registered seed stands of Quercus robur in Western Germany. Eight highly variable nuclear microsatellites were used to genotype each individual. We found in total 255 different alleles at all loci in the adult populations. The observed levels of genetic variation (Ae= 9.18), genetic differentiation (delta = 0.187) and population fixation (FST = 0.01) were slightly higher than results of similar studies. Individual and group assignment tests were performed with the Bayesian multi-locus approach. The proportion of correctly assigned seedlings was 65% for individuals with completely scored genotypes. In all 5 cases the groups of seedlings were assigned to the correct seed stand and an additional sample of seedlings from another stand could be successfully excluded with a probability test. The conclusion of the field study is that a large scale application of this new approach to control of the origin of forest reproductive material is feasible.
In order to assess genetic diversity within and among populations of Pinus pinea L. (stone pine), seven Portuguese populations originating from three Provenance Regions were selected and genotyped using two marker systems. We compared the genetic variation of these populations using retrotransposon-based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). In total, 105 trees were screened with three primer enzyme combinations (PEC), producing 232 SSAP and 132 AFLP loci. Where SSAP yielded approximately twice-the number of polymorphic fragments compared to AFLP. Differentiation was slightly higher for SSAP, than for AFLP (FST = 0.105 for SSAP and 0.074 for AFLP), and both significantly different from zero, P < 0.01. The levels of average genetic diversity within-population found with the two types of marker were not significantly different between SSAPs and AFLPs (26.6% and 22.8%, respectively). The populations that displayed the highest and lowest genetic diversity scores were the same for both markers, and only two populations had significantly different He estimates. The neighbor-joining tree based on the Nei’s genetic distance displayed some geographic pattern. With the AFLP markers the populations grouped according to the provenance regions where they were sampled, resulting in one well supported cluster with the Southern populations, but with SSAP the pattern was not so coherent. In this study SSAP generated more polymorphic fragments and higher estimates of genetic diversity than AFPL did, due, probably, to the higher mutation rate of retrotransposition relative to base mutation. Nevertheless, congruence was found between estimates obtained with both markers, which is very interesting, for, in general, SSAP markers have lower costs compared to AFLPs, and they might be an interesting alternative marker system, when higher resolution is requested.
In the years 2004-2006, 37 F. rubra L. ecotypes and 35 F. nigrescens Lam. ecotypes were evaluated for their main lawn traits: the general aspect of the plant, slow re-growth, overwintering, winter greenness, leaf fineness and disease resistance. The lawn properties of the ecotypes were assessed with the use of the IHAR 9-grade scale of the visual quality classification system. The study individuals were compared with the model varieties: F. rubra ‘Areta’ and F. nigrescens ‘Nimba’. The ecotypes originated from natural localities in the Lublin region. The experiment was conducted using the method of randomly chosen blocks in three repetitions. One repetition contained six plants of one ecotype grown at a distance of 75 × 30 cm. The aim of the study was to analyze the variability of lawn traits in the examined F. rubra and F. nigrescens ecotypes and to estimate the suitability of the selected material for the breeding of new lawn varieties. Analyses indicated that most of the ecotypes that grow in natural localities in the Lublin region display high-grade lawn traits. This confirms the great suitability of the wild plants for further breeding. Ecotypes of both species obtained high scores comparable with model varieties for their disease resistance, leaf fineness and winter greenness, and also for general aspect and slow re-growth.
Study on the quality of wines produced from ‘Syrah’ and ‘Tempranillo’ cultivars planted in two microregions in Southern Bulgaria
In the period 2006-2008 a comparative study was carried out on the ‘Tempranillo’, ‘Syrah 99’ and ‘Syrah 100’ cultivars, grown in two microregions in Southern Bulgaria - Brestnik and Pesnopoy. The soils in the region of Pesnopoy are of a better mechanical and chemical composition, which preconditions the formation of relatively high yields of good quality grapes. The ‘Tempranillo’ cultivar was highly productive in both microregions, however the quality of the wines was lower, compared to the ‘Syrah’ cultivar. They were poorer both in the content of extract and in fruit aroma. ‘Syrah 99’ from Brestnik and ‘Syrah 100’ clones from Pesnopoy do not differ significantly in productivity, but the wines of ‘Syrah 100’ from the Pesnopoy region were more intense in colour and their aroma was strong, full-bodied and lasting with dominating floral (violet) and forest fruit nuances. Tasting results showed high scores, which is evidence that the young wines have potential and contain the ingredients and components necessary to develop further into top quality red wines.
Srđan Stojnić, S. Orlović, D. Ballian, M. Ivankovic, M. Šijačić-Nikolić, A. Pilipović, S. Bogdan, S. Kvesić, M. Mataruga, V. Daničić, B. Cvjetković, D. Miljković and G. von Wuehlisch
Fifteen provenances of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) were evaluated for stability and adaptability by height growth at four test sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1), Croatia (1) and Serbia (2). Provenance trials were established in spring 2007 by planting 2- and 3-yearold seedlings and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The data from seven 6- year-old and eight 5-year-old provenances were obtained in 2009 and analyzed separately. Finlay and Wilkinson’s regression analysis and Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI model) were used to assess provenance by site interaction (P × S) and to identify beech provenances that have high and stable performance in different environments, at the juvenile stage of development. Analysis of variance showed that effects of provenance, site, and P×S interaction are highly significant (p<0.001) in both age groups. Linear regression model evidenced that most of the provenances had regression coefficients not significantly different from unity (b=1.0), except for provenances Sjeverni Dilj Caglinski (HR24) and Vranica-Bistrica (BA59). The partitioning of the total sum of squares (SS) exhibited that the site effect was the predominant source of variation in both age groups of provenances (50.7% and 38.5%, respectively). Additionally, regression analysis explained 15.8% and 33.2% of provenance by site interaction terms, in provenances age six and five years, respectively, while the AMMI analysis accounted for 62.2% and 78.7% in P×S interaction. The results of AMMI showed that the first principal component (PC1) was statistically significant in both age groups. Adaptability and stability of provenances to the test sites were estimated with AMMI1 and AMMI2 biplots. Provenance Sjeverni Dilj Caglinski (HR24) showed constant performance over tested sites, characterizing with aboveaverage height growth at low yielding environments. Provenances HR25 and BA61 showed the opposite type of adaptation, being adapted to high yielding sites. Provenance Valkonya (HU42) was characterized by IPCA1 score close to zero and above average mean height growth, suggesting general adaptation to the tested environments. The implication of P×S was discussed in light of impact of climate change on beech and selection of most suitable provenances for future reforestation programs.
: automated docking with selective receptor flexibility. Journal of Computational Chemistry 16, 2785–2791.
 Trott, O., Olson, A. J. (2010), AutoDock Vina: improving the speed and accuracy of docking with a new scoring function, efficient optimization and multithreading. Journal of Computational Chemistry 31, 455–461.
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7. Holstein Association USA (2017). Genetic Evaluations for Productive Life, Somatic Cell Score and Net Merit Dollars, from http://www.holsteinusa.com/genetic_evaluations/ss_Gen_Eval_for_PL.html
8. Sewalem, A., Miglior, F., Kistemaker, G.J., Sullivan, P. & Van Doormaal, B.J. (2008), Relationship between reproduction traits and functional longevity in