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Rosen S. Sokolov, Bistra Y. Atanassova and Elena T. Iakimova

Abstract

In this study, the effects of compounds providing Fe in chelated (NaFeEDTA and Fe(III)AC) and non-chelated (FeSO4·7H2O) forms as components of culture media, on in vitro shoot multiplication and rooting of Magnolia soulangeana ‘Alexandrina’, Magnolia grandiflora and Prunus cerasifera ‘Nigra’ were comparatively evaluated. Each of the tested chemicals was used as a single Fe source in the basal salt medium. In the stages of shoot multiplication and rooting plant response was scored by biometrical indices (number of shoots, leaves and roots, shoot and root length, percent of rooted plants and root hairs). The occurrence of physiological disorders was estimated by visual observations. In presence of FeSO4, symptoms of chlorosis, hyperhy-dricity, early senescence and specific morphology of roots, suggesting Fe deficiency, were observed. These deteriorations were entirely prevented at the application of Fe chelates of which, in this experimental systems, Fe(III)AC was tested for the first time. The addition of Fe(III)AC positively affected the plant quality to extent comparable to that of NaFeEDTA. The obtained data suggest that both applied Fe chelates are more appropriate than non-chelated Fe form and can be alternatively used in the optimization of nutrient media for micropropagation of Magnolia and Prunus cerasifera genotypes.

Open access

Dorota Konopacka, Krzysztof P. Rutkowski, Dorota E. Kruczyńska, Anna Skorupińska and Witold Płocharski

Abstract

The eating quality of nine new pear cultivars grown in Poland was investigated in 2008-2011. Fruits of two summer cultivars: ‘Alfa’ and ‘Radana’, as well as late season varieties: ‘Hortensia’, ‘Dicolor’, ‘Concorde’, ‘Uta’, ‘Xenia’, ‘Erika’ and ‘Verdi’ were compared to fruits of ‘Clapp’s Favorite’ and ‘Conference’, which were taken as cultivars of reference. Fruits of all cultivars were harvested from the Experimental Orchard of the Research Institute of Horticulture at the commercial maturity stage and stored at +2.5 °C or -0.5 °C in a normal atmosphere (NA) or at -0.5 °C in a controlled atmosphere (CA) (0.7% CO2 : 2% O2) for 6 to 16 weeks. At the end of storage, the fruits of each cultivar were subjected to an individual ripening schedule at 18 °C (up to 14 days), which generated samples of diversified quality attributes. Based on instrumental analyses and descriptive sensory assessment the quality attributes of each cultivar were examined. The gathered data on the dynamics of quality attribute changes during the ripening stage confirm that each new cultivar needs an individual strategy during storage and ripening in order to maximise their specific sensory attributes to increase potential market value. The obtained data leads to the conclusion that ‘Xenia’ and ‘Concorde’ fruits have the biggest chance to fulfil consumer expectations, as they were appreciated more than the reference ‘Conference’ cultivar. Among the others also ‘Hortensia’, ‘Verdi’ and ‘Dicolor’ were scored higher than ‘Conference’, but their advantages were not so evident.

Open access

Yasin Ozdemir, Nesrin Aktepe Tangu, Aysun Ozturk, Mehmet Emin Akcay and Sezai Ercisli

Abstract

Some important physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of raw and processed olives (processed by the same scratched table olive process) were investigated. In the study, six candidate cultivars obtained by cross-breeding and one standard cultivar (‘Domat’) grown together in an olive breeding and observation plot in the Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute in Turkey were investigated. Fruit weight and flesh-to-seed ratio of fresh raw olives ranged from 5.18 to 7.65 g and 4.8 to 6.3, respectively. LT011 had the highest fruit weight, whereas LT001 and LE001 had the highest flesh-to-seed ratio. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the produced table olives were estimated between 102 and 141 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g−1fresh weight, and 13.4 and 14.9 µmol Trolox 100 g−1, respectively. Fruits of LT001 had higher appearance, taste, bitterness and general appreciation scores than the others. LT001 showed a lesser loss of oleuropein absorbance and antioxidant activity than the others during processing. The results of this study revealed that LE001, LT001 and LT011 had superior characteristics for the production of scratched green table olives.

Open access

F. Santi and J. Dufour

Abstract

For the first time, the diversity of wild cherry in Caucasia was sampled: 5 populations of Georgia, together with 11 French populations. 23 alleles from 7 isozyme loci were scored, among them 6 new alleles in Georgia. Though the total number of alleles was higher in Georgia (A = 2.4) than in France (A = 2.0), the diversity was higher in France (He = 0.324) than in Georgia (He = 0.284). A higher level of differentiation was found in France (Fst = 0.094) than in Georgia (Fst = 0.057), and the total Fst was even higher (0.108). Mean pairwise distances inside the French group, the Georgian group and between the two groups were 0.054, 0.037 and 0.094, respectively. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between genetic and geographical distances was 0.58 (p = 0.014) between France and Georgia, which indicated a moderate pattern of isolation by distance. The number of migrants after correction of size was high among the French populations (Nm= 7.6) and even higher among the four nearby Georgian populations (Nm= 32), but it was very low between the pooled French populations and the pooled Georgian populations (Nm= 0.33). Georgia in Caucasia, as an extreme country in the distribution area, can be considered as a source of neutral gene diversity for wild cherry, and thus may also be one for adaptative gene diversity we could use to increase the genetic base of our western country wild cherry breeding populations.

Open access

Piero Belletti, S. Leonardi, I. Monteleone and P. Piovani

Abstract

Allozyme variation was studied by electrophoresis at 11 loci in 14 populations of Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Q. cerris and Q. pubescens from Piedmont, northwestern Italy. The aim of the work was to characterize the genetic resources and to suggest effective measures for in situ preservation of biodiversity. As expected, most of the genetic variability was found at the within population level, and genetic differentiation accounted for about 14% of it. The study confirmed the low level of genetic variability among the species studied: only Q. cerris populations could be clearly distinguished. Q. pubescens could be separated from Q. petraea and Q. robur using Principal Coordinate Analysys. The latter was also found to be useful for separating Q. petraea and Q. robur populations. However, in mixed populations, the differentiation between the latter species was similar to that scored among populations belonging to the same species. A significant deviation from random mating was observed, although it was variable among species: Q. pubescens had the highest value for the inbreeding coefficient FIS (0.159).

Open access

A. Kormutak, B. Demankova and D. Gömöry

Abstract

Molecular evidence for spontaneous hybridization between Pinus sylvestris L. and P. mugo Turra in the putative hybrid swarm populations of the species in Slovakia was provided based on PCR-RFLP analysis of the cpDNA trnV-trnH region. Species-specific restriction profiles generated by Hinf I digests of the cpDNA products reliably identified P. sylvestris and P. mugo haplotypes of the embryos from open pollination. Simultaneous analysis of the respective cpDNA region in megagametophytes and embryos of individual seeds along with needles of a given maternal tree has enabled to score either the P. sylvestris or P. mugo haplotypes in the embryos illustrating hybridization patterns between the two species. Data obtained in this way indicate a relatively extensive hybridization which takes place between P. sylvestris and P. mugo. The extent of hybridization varied among populations as evidenced by the 41.1-58.7% proportion of hybrid embryos registered on the locality Habovka, and by the 8.3% and 2.7% proportions of hybrid embryos on the localities Tisovnica and Sucha Hora, respectively. The approach itself is recommended as a convenient method for monitoring the hybridization patterns in sympatric zones of the studied pine species.

Open access

Riry Prihatini, Farihul Ihsan and Ni Luh Putu Indriyani

Abstract

The molecular analysis of 32 durian F1 hybrids, resulted from crossing of the Arp 8990 (female parent) and ‘Otong’ (male parent), was conducted in order to determine the genetic characteristics of hybrids and parents, as it would be followed/evidenced by the variability of traits produced from the cross breeding. The RAPD analyses of 14 primers resulted in 114 scoring bands, 112 (98.2%) of them were polymorphic, with 4 to 11 bands amplified per primer. The electrophoresis gel of the PCR results revealed that some hybrids produced different band patterns compared to the parents; this indicated the crossing between parents’ alleles and trait combinations from both the parents. The Dice-Sorensen similarity coefficient demonstrated that most of the hybrids had distant genetic similarities with both parents, which were ranged from 0.141 [71B(4) and 72B(15)] to 0.776 [71B(15) and 48B(1)]. The UPGMA method was used to construct the dendrogram, which grouped the hybrids in five clusters with distinct genetic relationships and was confirmed with the PCA analysis. This result implied that above crossing produced hybrids having characters different from the parents.

Open access

Harikesh N. Misra and Ashutosh Mishra

Abstract

It is said that small and intermediate size towns play a significant role in the socio-economic transformation of regional spaces through diffusion of innovations. It, however, has been hypothesized here that in this diffusion process the villages having better infrastructural facilities and services, play central role. For its analysis, the study takes the case of a region consisting of three administrative districts - Raebareli, Sultanpur and Pratapgarh, of the Uttar Pradesh state of India. These districts have remained in political focus since India’s independence and have elected two prime-ministers and some most influential politicians of their times in quest of development. However, the condition of development here is still deplorable. These districts have 22 statutory towns, and are least urbanized in the state. The towns are mainly administrative or market centres in nature serving surrounding villages by their backward and forward linkages. The study analyses ‘Z scores’ of select services to measure the level of development at block and village level, and portrays the spatial arrangement of towns in development setting of the region. The study observes that while towns are instrumental in promoting regional development, the role of ‘rurban’ centres (high service villages) in the process of diffusion of development is pivotal.

Open access

Darius Danusevicius, G. Masaitis and G. Mozgeris

Abstract

Genetic diversity is an important indicator of forest sustainability requiring particular attention and new methods to obtain fast and cheap estimates of genetic diversity. We assessed the differences in visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectral reflectance properties of detached shoots of several distant Scots pine provenances aiming to identify the most informative spectral wavebands and the seasonal time for the genetic diversity scoring. Shoots of five trees per provenance were sampled at two week intervals during the active growth and fall. The samples were scanned using a hyperspectral camera, equipped with a highly sensitive spectrometer capable of covering the spectral range of 400-1000 nm with a sampling interval of 0.6 nm. The ANOVAs revealed significant provenance effects on the spectral reflectance at variable spectral intervals depending on the sampling occasion. During the active growth, PCA identified the most informative wavebands over whole spectral range investigated. During the shoot/needle hardiness development, NIR was the most informative. Provenance ranking in spectral reflectance returned geographically interpretable pattern. We conclude that there are significant provenance attributable and interpretable differences in spectral reflectance of Scots pine needles providing a good opportunity for detecting this spectral variation with the hyperspectral imaging technique.

Open access

Myrtill Gráff, Edit Mikó, Bence Zádori and József Csanádi

Squacquerone Italian fresh cheeses by ICP-OES. Elsevier Food Control, 17, 229-233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.10.010 6. Branca, A. & Casu, S. (1989). Body condition score annual evolution and its relationship with body reserves in Sarda goat, 215-231, in: L’évaluation des ovins et des caprins méditerranéens, Symposium “Philoetios”, Flamant J.C., Morand-Fehr P. (eds.), Rapport EUR 11893, Luxembourg: Opoce 7. Vacca, G.M., Ouled, H., Pazzola, M., Dettori, M.L. & Carcangiu, V. (2009). An investigation on allele frequency at the CSN1S2