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The European Commission (EC) has identified active and healthy ageing (AHA) as a major societal challenge mutual to European countries. This issue has increased in importance due to the progressive ageing observed in European societies, that force authorities to take initiatives for support the activity of the elderly. One of the initiatives, widely recognised is The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, which strive to enabling EU citizens to lead healthy, active and independent lives while ageing.
The positive effect of actions for the AHA will be extension of the life in good health duration of EU citizens by two years by 2020. This is an important issue, as in 2013, women who have reached the age of 65 years in UE28 were facing on average 21.3 years of further life years and only 8.6 years (on average this amounted for 40.4 % of life expectancy) accounted for living in health, whereas for males, this ratio was estimated on 8.5 years in health of the anticipated further 17.9 years (47.5% of further life duration).
Life expectancy in good health in older age is influenced by many different factors, i.e. cultural, social, economic and accessibility to health services and the quality of provided treatment. The last aspect is related to both the economic development of the country and the health care system management. The significant factor that has been increasingly emphasised in documentation of World Health Organisation or European Commission, concerns the investment in public and individual health.
Taking into account the multivariate impact of objective and subjective factors on life expectancy in good health of elderly, the Authors decided to conduct the multidimensional comparative analysis for EU countries, including Norway, Switzerland and Iceland as well. Among the objective factors Authors distinguished: proportion of population (men and women) aged 65 years and more, economic development of the countries measured by GDP per capita, healthy life years expectancy in absolute values for males and females at 65 years, health care expenditures in PPS per inhabitant aged 65+, whereas the group of subjective characteristics consisted of: self-perceived health for people aged 65+ and self-reported unmet needs for medical services.
The article aims to investigate the relationship between the length of the further life in healthy for men and women aged 65 years and selected factors in European countries in the period 2005-2012. For this purpose, following methods were used: 1/ spatial distribution of characteristics - rates of change in selected periods: 2005 and 2012, 2/ tests for dependencies using correlograms and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, 3/ cluster analysis: on the basis of Ward’s methods spatial similarities (among countries) were indicated. As the source of data the Eurostat database were used.
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Mike Nyamazana Sikwila, Godwell Karedza and Yvonne Lindiwe Sikwila
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number of facts for the purpose of this paper. We see that the incidence of TBC can serve as a good measure for public health given the nature of the disease and the disease environment as such in the TBC-infested countries. Moreover, microeconomic evidence from randomized trials in developing countries supports the conjecture of this paper that health can matter for health. Therefore, studying it on a macro level seems to be relevant.
4 Data and Method
We exploited three databases: Penn World Tables for the data on GDPpercapita and the investment rate, the
considerably differentiated natural conditions. There is a negative cementing element of tremendous discrepancies between core and peripheral areas, which implicates discrepancies between rich and poor inhabitants. There is a relatively low value of GDPpercapita and, in particular, a low life expectancy, especially for men (only 65 years). Other problems include large transport distances and the low value added of industrial production, as well as the focus on the export of raw materials and arms systems.
The Australian - Oceanic macro-region has by far the
Milorad Filipović, Miroljub Nikolić and Vojislav Ilić
The most developed and most competitive countries today (including the leading countries of the European Union) are so-called “knowledge-based economies”, where knowledge, information and highly sophisticated skills play an important role in the development of the business and public sector. Knowledge and technology are becoming ever more complex, participation in knowledge-based economic activities is significantly increased (high-tech production and knowledge-based services), and connecting companies in these areas with private and public institutions facilitates development and the successful application of new innovations, thus raising the level of competitiveness of companies, industries and the country as a whole. In the last few years, rapid growth in the international trade of high-tech products and knowledge-based services has significantly changed a large number of countries’ international competitiveness. These trends show that creating, implementing and commercializing new technology and knowledge facilitates the development of high-tech products and knowledge-based services, which have become an important source of increasing productivity and manufacturing and export competitiveness. Thus high-tech sectors have become an important source of high added value and well-paid jobs, plus sustainable economic growth and global competitiveness. According to the World Economic Forum’s competitiveness rankings, Serbia is 95th out of 144 countries and is in the group of the 33 countries whose competitiveness is efficiency-driven. The achieved level of competitiveness of the domestic economy and the achieved level of economic development (Serbia is 75th in the world for GDP per capita in dollars) points to low productivity in the use of available (human, capital, financial, etc.) resources accompanied by high current spending, which is not a situation that is sustainable in the long-term. The research starts from the assumption that the development of high-tech- and knowledge-based activities plays a significant role in strengthening the competitiveness of the economy. A comparative analysis examines the link between the lagging Serbian economy in terms of competitiveness and the slower development of a knowledge-based economy, compared to the most highly developed European countries and selected countries in the region. A structural analysis and comparison of the most important business indicators (employment, productivity and added value) of high technology and knowledge-based companies shows the development and basic characteristics of the knowledge-based economy in Serbia and the macro-competitive position of Serbia compared to the leading and neighboring European Union countries. The paper also identifies the most important factors of developing a knowledge-based economy in Serbia, which needs to be improved to facilitate significant development of high-tech and knowledge-based activities as the basis for the future competitiveness of the domestic economy. The final objective of the paper is to point out the need for more substantial and faster development of a knowledge-based economy as a prerequisite for achieving long-term international competitiveness and sustainable development of the Serbian economy.