The present study was undertaken to investigate how EFL teachers utilise corrective feedback in their classrooms. To this end, an analytic model consisting of various corrective feedback moves was applied to a small amount of data consisting of 12 lesson-hour classroom interaction with a purpose of documenting the frequencies and distribution of corrective feedback, in particular, of recasts in relation to other corrective feedback types and of specific types of recasts. Data were gathered from first-year speaking classes at an ELT department in a large state university in Turkey. The findings indicated that recasts were the most frequently employed corrective feedback strategy by the teachers. A closer examination of those recasts further revealed incorporative declarative recasts as the most preferred type of recasting. Overall, what these findings suggest is that recasts might serve important communicative functions by helping EFL teachers provide input in an authentic and supportive manner and by building on learner output.
In order to reach far in the work for sustainable development, communication in foreign languages prior to strategic decisions is required from international partners. In this communication English has become the lingua franca. Even though the use of EFL (English as a foreign language) is widely spread, it is clear that in some geographical regions English has quite recently taken the role as the language of international communication. It is therefore relevant carry out studies in order to identify possible causes for misunderstandings when communicating in EFL. With the aim of providing material for research on EFL by 12-year-olds, the creation of a language corpus on the use of English in the Baltic region is in process. The first part of the data collection was completed in August 2016 and the data comprises some 2,200 texts written in 2015–2016 by Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian and Swedish learners. The aim of the present study is to investigate young learners’ written communication on issues related to sustainable development.
A qualitative method was used on a limited sample of to identify key words in the production by young learners of five different nationalities. Abstract nouns related to topics which can be regarded to refer to sustainable development were collected and analyzed.
The results show that 12-year-olds are able to communicate in English for discussions on issues related to sustainable development. This indicates that successful international communication in English on these matters is within reach with a continued process of English language learning at schools in the Baltic region.
It goes without saying that the lingua franca’s significance in our day and age is fundamental. International and European integration, as well as the modern process of globalization have lead to the incremented usage of the English language. As a result, English as a foreign language has become a relevant subject taught for a minimum of one year within almost all bachelor programs in the Romanian higher educational system. As an integrated part of the European Union, Romania is constantly undergoing a process of delivering higher education – services at European standards; thus, EFL courses, seminars and practical courses in Universities are becoming an important mile stone in the European development of students.
The use of ergative verbs results in the agent being backgrounded in an English sentence, and it is often used in the media together with other means such as the use of intransitive verbs, passives, and nominalized nouns to achieve the pragmatic purpose of accusation avoidance. A great deal of research has been done on the role of ergative verbs in media discourse in English as well as the acquisition of ergative verbs by learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). However, it remains unclear how EFL Chinese learners of advanced levels of competence, such as postgraduates of translation majors and professional translators, use ergative verbs when translating newspaper editorials from Chinese into English. Nor is it clear whether learners have acquired the requisite knowledge of ergative verbs in order to use them effectively so as to avoid blaming the agent of an action or process in translation. This study recruited 30 native Chinese-speaking translators who fell into three categories: undergraduate translators, graduate translators, and professional translators. A small parallel translation corpus was built, which consisted of 150 English translations of 5 Chinese editorials produced by the translators. Accusation-avoidance expressions in the source text and their translations were then extracted and input into an SPSS spreadsheet. The results show that the use of ergative verbs in translations by undergraduate translators is significantly higher than in translations by graduate and professional translators in terms of quantity. The results of the study may be useful for translation teaching and learning.
The analysis of English as a lingua franca (ELF) has received considerable attention over the years. There has been a lot of research done both on the morpho-syntactic properties of ELF interactions and the communication strategies used by ELF speakers in order to facilitate communication and avoid misunderstandings. Given the fairly large number of findings, the question arises whether ELF should be introduced in the curriculum or replace EFL (English as a Foreign Language). I believe that although ELF data are significant and can benefit teaching English as a foreign language, they cannot replace EFL, especially because English as a lingua franca is primarily a communication tool and not a language variant. Also, while there have been other models suggested as alternatives to teaching a standard version of English, none of these models seem practical enough or have proven applicable in the classroom.
After giving an overview of the research done on English as a lingua franca, with a special emphasis on the notion of lingua franca core, the study reflects on the repercussions of ELF findings on teaching English as a foreign language.
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1. Abad, J. (2013). Pedagogical Factors that Influence EFL Teaching: Some Considerations for Teachers’ Professional Development. Profile, Colombia, Volume 15, No 1, pp. 97-108
2. Ahmad, J. (2015). Traditional and Sociocultural Barriers to EFL learning: a Case Study. English Language Teaching, Volume 8, No 12, pp. 191-208.
3. Roy-Campbell, Z. (2014). Teaching English as a Second Language in Kenia and the United States: Convergences and Divergences. Global Education Review, No 2 (2), pp. 84
Recent studies of short-term phonetic interference suggest that code-switching can lead to momentary increases in L1 influence on L2. In an earlier study using a single acoustic measure (VOT), we found that Czech EFL learners’ pronunciation of English voiceless stops had shorter, i.e. more L1-Czech-like, VOTs in code-switched compared to L2-only sentences. The first aim of the current study was to test the prediction that native listeners would judge the code-switched English productions as more foreign-accented than the L2-only productions. The results provide only weak support for this prediction. The second aim was to test whether more native-like VOT values would correlate with improved accentedness scores. This was confirmed for sentence-initial stops.
The first part of this paper considers approaches to teacher education for EFL developed during the 1960s-1990s, drawing upon two sources: the taxonomy of three approaches proposed by Wallace (1991) and personal reminiscence. It discusses each of Wallace's approaches in turn: craft, 'applied science', and reflective practice.The second part considers whether these approaches are adequate models for teacher education now. I suggest that while they are still relevant, they are also too inward looking for contemporary needs.They need to be supplemented with a more outward looking approach, in which teachers are prepared to engage with four aspects of the contemporary context: new communication technologies, the new global linguistic landscape, the relationship between English and learners' own languages, and the rival political views of English language learning as promoting either a global neoliberal agenda or a global civil society.
This paper expounds a language pedagogy that is framed within the ecological perspective on language learning elaborated by Leo van Lier (2000 Leo van Lier (2004) and Claire Kramsch (2009 and Claire Kramsch (2010) and adopts Maria Tymoczko’s (2007) holistic approach to cultural translation. Next, I report on a case study where the proposed methodology was integrated in the syllabus design of a 3-credit module I taught as part of a professional development course attended by secondary school EFL teachers at the University of Bari during the 2013-2014 academic year. Students analysed and translated salient scenes from the bilingual drama La stella che non c’è/The Missing Star (directed by Gianni Amelio, 2006). In so doing, they unveiled the connectedness between language and culture and how they both are “discursively constructed” in social contexts(van Lier, The Ecology 184).