The article presents the results of two-year studies on the influence of the method of sowing and the level of nitrogen application on the yield of seeds of Silphium perfoliatum L. − a new fodder crop for the conditions of Belarus. Silphium is precious for the nutritive value of green mass. According to the literature sources, dry matter contains 16-28% of protein, more than 60% of nitrogen-free extractives, 13-23% of sugars, high content of mineral substances, a small amount of fiber, adequate calcium and phosphorus, carotene, vitamin C. Mineral composition of Silphium contains 17.6% of dry matter, including 152.3 mg·kg−1 of ash. Macro elements: calcium – 18.1, phosphorus − 2.55, manganese – 4.48, potassium – 24.03, sodium – 0.40, sulphur – 0.40 mg· kg−1 of mg· kg−1 of dry matter. The mass of 1000 seeds was from 23.7 to 25.5 g. The seed germination was good and varied from 75% to 84%. It has been established that the best way to sow the Silphium is planting seedlings according to the 70x30 scheme. This option ensured the yield of seeds of 3.6 and 3.7 c/ha. The applying of increased doses of nitrogen fertilizers N90 and N120 and sowing seeds ensured the yield of seeds ranging from 3,6 to 3,9 c·ha−1.
Adam Takač, Vukašin Popović, Janko Červenski, Svetlana Glogovac and Slađana Medić-Pap
Dunavski rubin is a medium early indeterminate cultivar with large fruits and average fruit weight of 180 g. It was developed by crossing cultivars Korona and Saint Pierre. Hybrid material was grown by using the pedigree method. Phenotypically uniform line V9 was selected and submitted to the Varietal Release Committee of the Republic of Serbia. Cultivar was released in 2014 by the Decision of Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia under no. 320-04-1871/2/2013-11. Dunavski rubin represents successful combination of genes responsible for high fertility rate and fruit quality. Fruits of Dunavski rubin cultivar have high percentage of dry matter (6.30%), high level of lycopene (106.7 mg/100 g), and excellent total acidity (0.39%). Vitamin C content is 52.7 mg/100 g, while total sugars amount to 5.71%. High K content (1520 mg/kg) and low Na content (79.8 mg/kg) is what distinguishes this cultivar from the others. Comparing with other cultivars trough three year field experiments, it was concluded that Dunavski rubin is a cultivar intended for fresh consumption due to a long fruit-bearing period, but is also an excellent raw material for processing due to its high quality fruit. All of the above mentioned classifies Dunavski rubin as an enhancer in technological processing of tomato.
The Effect of Irrigation Methods on the Yield of Pickling Cucumber
The effects of drip irrigation combined with fertigation and sprinkler irrigation combined with broadcast fertilisation on the yield of pickling cucumber were compared in an experiment carried out over three years. The control treatment was broadcast fertilised and did not receive any irrigation.
For the three years, on average, no difference in the yields of cucumber was found between sprinkler and drip irrigated plants; however, in one year the yield of the drip irrigated crop was higher. The percentage of fruit of pickling size was higher and the non-marketable yield lower when cucumber plants were drip irrigated. Drip irrigation was more efficient than sprinkler irrigation. Irrigation decreased the total sugar and vitamin C content, but there was no difference between drip and sprinkler irrigation.
Radiation dermatitis is one of the commonest side effects of ionizing radiation which is applied in radiotherapy of carcinoma of all localizations, most frequently of tumors of breast, head and neck region, lungs and soft tissue sarcomas. It usually occurs as a complication of breast radiotherapy and thus it is more often recorded in female patients on the skin in the region of breast subjected to radiation. Clinical manifestations of radiation dermatitis can be divided into four phases: acute phase (erythema, dry desquamation, moist desquamation, ulceration and necrosis with resulting re-epithelialization, residual post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, reduction and suppression of sebaceous and sweat glands and epilation); subacute phase (hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, telangiectasia, skin atrophy, even ulceration); chronic phase (skin atrophy, dermal fibrosis and permanent skin epilation) and late phase (increased risk of skin cancer). In order to prevent radiation dermatitis, skin care products should be applied throughout radiotherapy that will decrease the frequency of skin reactions or block them and thus improve life quality. Although the therapy includes not only topical corticosteroids but numerous other products with active ingredients such as aloe vera, calendula, hyaluronic acid, sucralfat, sorbolene, mineral and olive oil, honey, vitamin C, zinc, antimicrobials and silver, common therapeutic consensus has not been reached on their application in radiation dermatitis. Therefore, the treatment should be conducted according to the basic guidelines but tailor-made for each individual patient.
Janina Gajc-Wolska, Katarzyna Mazur, Monika Niedzińska, Katarzyna Kowalczyk and Paweł Żołnierczyk
Optimal feeding of field-grown plants is thought to be a key factor modifying their growth and development. Natural biostimulants, foliar fertilizers and plant growth regulators have been applied in horticultural production; however, their effect varies depending on the plant species treated, and those have been mainly cucumber, tomato, pepper, potato, and melon. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of preparations produced through nanotechnology on the yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper grown under cover. The experiment comprised plants grown in three different combinations: combination I (plants treated with 2 kg ha−1 Nano Active); combination II (plants treated with 1% Nano Active Forte + 4 kg ha−1 Nano Active Forte + 2 kg ha−1 Nano Active, a single treatment carried out at the initial stage of fruit formation); and combination III (the control, where all plants were sprayed with water).
The obtained results showed that Nano Active Forte foliar treatment of sweet pepper plants significantly increased fruit yield in protected cultivation. Supplementation with foliar fertilizers modified the fruit chemical composition. Application of the Nano Active Forte preparation led to an increase in dry matter content as well as in the concentrations of total sugars, vitamin C and carotenoids. Applications of Nano Active Forte and Nano Active enhanced the potassium and phosphorus contents, while the concentrations of nitrates and calcium remained at the same level regardless of the preparations used.
Jarosław Pobereżny, Elżbieta Wszelaczyńska, Jarosław Chmielewski, Damian Gorczyca, Wojciech Kozera and Tomasz Knapowski
The factors that affect the value of parsley for consumption include its taste, flavour and dietary utility (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and iron, raw fibre, proteins) as well as the content of hazardous substances, especially nitrogen compounds. A study was carried out in 2013–2015 to determine the effect of the cultivation technology and storage on the safety of parsley intended for processing. The study material was taken from an experiment where the following fertilisers were applied to the ground: nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N∙ha−1) and magnesium (0; 30 kg Mg∙ha−1). Parsley roots were stored for six months in a storage room at +1°C and RH 95%. The content of nitrates (V) and (III) was determined by the ion selective method immediately after the harvest and after storage in parsley roots.
The highest levels of nitrates (V) and (III) were found in parsley roots in the cultivation option where nitrogen for fertilisation was applied at the greatest amount, i.e. 120 kg N ha−1 and magnesium at 30 kg Mg∙ha−1. Regardless of the measures applied during the vegetation period, prolonged storage of parsley resulted in a decreased content of nitrates (V) and (III) in its roots. The limit for nitrogen content and the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrates (1.0%) and nitrites (4.5%) were not exceeded in the cultivar under study.
Andrea Holubková, Adela Penesová, Ernest Šturdík, Silvia Mošovská and Lucia Mikušová
Metabolic syndrome represents a clustering of risk factors related to an elevated danger of cardiovascular diseases and type 2. diabetes. The high incidence of obesity, the key risk factor in metabolic syndrome, and the lack of safe pharmaceutical agents have fuelled an increase in research related to anti-metabolic syndrome drugs. Phytochemicals have biological properties such as antioxidant, modulation of detoxification enzymes, stimulation of the immune system, reduction of platelet aggregation and modulation of hormone metabolism. These compounds include vitamins, comprising of vitamin C, D and E, flavonoids, phenolic acids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Furthermore, the latest discoveries and studies on the molecular mechanism of these phytochemicals suggested their potential positive effect in the prevention and treatment of obesity and other risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome. They should be incorporated in food ingredients, dietary supplements, or drug preparations. The main focus of this article is to review the available information on various aspects of phytochemicals, with special reference to their effectiveness in risk reduction of the metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases.
Muttalip Gündoğdu, Sezai Ercisli, Ihsan Canan, Erdal Orman, Muhammad Sameeullah, Muhammad Naeem and Rayda Ben Ayed
Strawberry trees (Arbutus unedo L.) are naturally grown in particular Black Sea and Mediterranean regions of Turkey with great diversity due to continuous seed propagation for centuries. The trees differ in terms of most of the horticultural characteristics. We investigated the phenolic compounds and the biochemical and pomological characteristics of the fruits of eight strawberry tree selections naturally grown in the western part of Turkey. Significant differences were found among the genotypes in terms of their phenolic compounds and their biochemical and pomological characteristics. Among soluble sugars, fructose (11.63 g 100 g−1) was the dominant sugar, followed by glucose (6.10 g 100 g−1) and sucrose (1.44 g 100 g−1) for all the genotypes. Positive correlation was found between fruit weight and soluble sugar content. Malic acid was the major organic acid (0.67-2.33 g 100 g−1), and the second major organic acid in strawberry tree fruits was citric acid (0.25-0.87 g 100 g−1). Vitamin C content was an average of 56.22 g 100 g−1 for the eight genotypes. Among phenolic compounds, gallic acid was dominant (1.62-7.29 mg 100 g−1), followed by chlorogenic acid (1.23-3.14 mg 100 g−1), on an average basis.
Islam Mohamed Yassin Abdellatif, Youssef Youssef Abdel-Ati, Yousry Tammam Abdel-Mageed and Mohamed Abdel-Moneim Mohamed Hassan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of humic acid (HA) applied at 4.8, 9.6 and 14.4 kg·ha−1 on the growth and productivity of two tomato hybrids Nema 1400 and Platinium 5043 under hot continental climate. HA was applied twice to soil: the first one – three weeks from transplanting and the second one, after one week from the first application, in both seasons. Application of HA during the summer season targeted a great results on tomato plant growth and productivity. HA at 14.4 kg·ha−1 in-creased the vegetative growth of tomatoes (plant height and fresh weight) and flowering parameters (number of flower clusters and flowers per plant) as well as yield characters (fruit number per plant and fruit weight, which resulted in higher early and total yield) in both seasons. HA application had the least impact on fruit number per plant, and on vitamin C and total soluble solids (TSS) concentration as compared with control.
Janina Gajc-Wolska, Mariola Łyszkowska and Teresa Zielony
The Influence of Grafting and Biostimulators on the Yield and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Tomato CV. (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Grown in the Field
Four tomato cultivars Macarena F1, Faustine F1, Cathy F1 and Fanny F1 were used in the study. Seeds were sown at the end of March and transplants were grown in a greenhouse. The plants were grafted on Maxifort F1 rootstock on April 5, 6 and 21 in the years 2006, 2007, 2008 respectively without the use of biostimulators. In the case of the other combinations each year the following treatments with biostimulators were performed: watering with Goteo 0.1% solution (twice - 4 and 2 weeks before planting and three times after planting at three-week intervals), spraying with BM 86 0.1% solution (four times every three weeks starting at the blooming of first cluster). In the control combination plants were neither-nor grafted or treated with biostimulators. Plants were planted in the field at 70×100 cm spacing - 20 plants per plot. For the ripe fruits analyses the following parameters were determined: dry matter, total sugars, vitamin C, carotenoids and macroelements: N, P, K, Ca.
A higher total and marketable yield was obtained after grafting and Goteo treatments. There was a significant influence of grafting and the application of the biostimulators on the content of dry matter and total sugars, however, the highest content of vitamin C and carotenoids were obtained in the control. There was a slight increase of the content of nitrates and calcium in the fruit in the case of grafting and Goteo biostimulator watering treatments, whereas the highest content of potassium in the fruit was obtained in plants treated with BM 86 and phosphorus in the fruits from control combination plants.