Maciej Kostecki, Malwina Tytła, Joanna Kernert and Katarzyna Stahl
The research objective was to study temporal and spatial relations between specific phosphorus species as well as to examine total phosphorus content in the bottom sediments of an anthropogenic, hypertrophic limnic ecosystem Rybnik Reservoir, functioning under thermal pollution conditions. The chemical extraction procedure for the speciation of bioavailable phosphorus forms was used. It was found that available algae phosphorus was the most dominant phosphorus species in both sediment layers (83%), while the lower share was readily desorbed phosphorus form (0.1%). The phosphorus species concentrations depended on the organic matter concentration. The differences between phosphorus species contents in the upper (5 cm) and lower (15–20 cm) sediment core layers were low. The biologically active sediment layer extended from the sediment surface to at least 20 cm depth of the sediment core. Distributions of the concentrations within the year and at specific sampling points resulted from the variability observed for particular points and transformation intensity. Furthermore in the following study, the reaction rate constant for the increase and decrease in the concentrations of the phosphorus species in sediments was given. It was indicated that the speed of the phosphorus species transformations was affected by the environment temperature. In the heated water discharge zone (water temp. 17–35°C) the concentrations of selected speciation phosphorus forms increased more than in the dam zone (5–25°C). It was also found that the abundance of the bottom sediments with phosphorus species was related to the oblong and transverse asymmetry of reservoir depth.
Kibrom M. Alula, James H. Resau and Osman V. Patel
of proapoptotic proteins during the pregnancy-to-lactation transition in a mammary gland of an experimental animal model. Therefore, in the present investigation, we extended our preceding study to quantify the temporal distribution of apoptosis-related proteins, namely Cleaved Caspase-3 (CC-3), Tumor Protein p53 (p53), and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the mammary tissue harvested from rats exposed to HG during the periparturient period employing quantitative immunohistochemistry.
Animals and Treatment Condition
The research approval, experimental
Daniel Okupny, Seweryn Rzepecki, Ryszard Krzysztof Borówka, Jacek Forysiak, Juliusz Twardy, Anna Fortuniak and Julita Tomkowiak
-Shonberg, C.D. & Nellen, W., 2001. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Limnological Processes. [In:] J.D. Tenhunen, R. Lenz & R. Hantschel (Eds): Ecosystem Approaches to Landscape Management in Central Europe. Ecological Studies 147, 117-162.
Ralska-Jasiewiczowa, M., van Geel, B. & Demske, D., 1998. Holocene regional vegetation history recorded in the Lake Gościąż sediments [In:] M. Ralska-Jasiewiczowa, T. Goslar, T. Madeyska & L. Starkel (Eds): Lake Gościąż, Central Poland. A monography study. P. 1. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences
for new categorizations of dietary specialism incorporating spatio-temporal availability of individual diet specialization. Journal of Zoology 300 (1): 1–7. DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12364.
Paine RT, Wootton JT & Boersma PD 1990: Direct and indirect effects of peregrine falcon predation on seabird abundance. The Auk 107: 1–9.
Price D, Slader P & Booker H 2014: Breeding cliff-nesting seabirds. Lundy Field Society Annual Report 2013 63: 85–92.
Ratcliffe DA 1993: The peregrine falcon. 2 nd ed. T & AD Poyser London, 454.
R Core Team 2016: R: A language
The IAG (International Association of Geodesy) Sub-Commission for the European reference
frame (EUREF) passed a resolution recommending application of the ETRF2000 frame as
national realizations of the ETRS89 reference system during the XXth EUREF Symposium in
Gävle (Sweden) in 2010. The PL-ETRF2000 system is comprised of EPN (EUREF
Permanent Network) sites. Their coordinates and their temporal changes (velocities) were
accurately determined on the basis of long-term GNSS observations. The transfer of the PLETRF2000
system onto the territory of Poland is realized by the ASG-EUPOS (Active
Geodetic Network – European Position Determination System) permanent sites network. The
ASG-EUPOS tasks include also system maintenance by continuous or periodical control of
the coordinates and velocities constancy.
According to the current Regulation of the Ministry of Administration and Digitization
concerning geodesic, gravimetric and magnetic warps, the accuracy of sites of the
fundamental warp (EPN sites belonging to ASG-EUPOS) may not be worse than 0.01 m for
horizontal position and 0.02 m for geodesic height. It results in the necessity to monitor the
performance of the reference sites for proper maintenance of the reference system.
A new team for modeling deformations in Europe was established within the EUREF
Working Group (The EUREF Working Group on Deformation Models) during the EUREF
2012 Symposium in Paris. One of its tasks is taking geo-kinematic models into consideration
for national realizations of the ETRS89 and maximum usage of knowledge concerning the
The paper deals with the problem of temporal validity of the catalogue coordinates and
the necessity of periodical updating them on the basis of velocities derived from long-term
observations. Although Poland is located in a tectonically calm area and the intraplate
velocities are small, some of the EPN and ASG-EUPOS sites have significant velocities and
are subject to vertical movements. Lack of periodical updating of the coordinates realizing the
reference system will cause lack of fulfillment of the assumed accuracy criterion.
Analysis of horizontal and vertical velocities of sites belonging to the fundamental
warp lead to assumption that two sites will exceed horizontal criterion in a period of time
shorter than 10 years counting from the reference epoch (i.e. from 2011.0): KATO horizontal
coordinates should be updated in 2014 and GWWL in 2021. Mores sites will exceed vertical criterion: BOGI (2021), GWWL (2015), KATO (2019), SWKI (2019) and ZYWI (2021). The
vertical component updating will require of course changes of the horizontal component
(coordinates are determined in the Cartesian orthogonal XYZ coordinate system and then
recalculated for the ellipsoidal coordinates). Besides periodical coordinates updating it is
recommended to conduct repeated processing for the entire network according to the EUREF
standards for taking the current GNSS observations into consideration.
Jacek Jachuła, Małgorzata Wrzesień, Monika Strzałkowska-Abramek and Bożena Denisow
., Wrzesień, M., 2015b: The importance of field-margin location for maintenance of food niches for pollinators. Journal of Apicultural Science 59, 27–37.
Dicks L.V., Baude M., Roberts S. M., Phillips J, Green M., Carvell C., 2015: How much flower-rich habitat is enough for wild pollinators? Answering a key policy question with incomplete knowledge. Ecological Entomology 40, 22–35.
Ebeling, A., Klein, A. M., Schumacher, J., Weisser, W. W., Tscharntke, T., 2008: How does plant richness affect pollinator richness and temporal stability of flower visits? Oikos 117
Temporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity in a Honey Bee Mating Area of an Island Population (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain)
A law to conserve the honey bee population on La Palma (Canary Islands) was stated in 2001. The introduction of foreign subspecies was prohibited. A natural mating area for local queens was established at the northeast section of the island. To evaluate the genetic diversity of the honey bee colonies located in this area, analyses of the mitochondrial (tRNAleu-cox2 intergenic region) and nuclear (five microsatellite loci) variation were performed by comparing two surveys conducted in 1998 and 2006 (i.e., before and after the conservation program started in 2001). While mitochondrial variability changed significantly in this area over the period analyzed, such differences were not observed at the nuclear level. These data may have implications relating to the control of selected colonies included in the conservation program. This is particularly true regarding the introduction of the colonies to other islands of the archipelago.
Temporal and Spatial Variation of Nutrient Leaching from Agricultural Land in Latvia: Long Term Trends in Retention and Nutrient Loss in a Drainage and Small Catchment Scale
Agricultural run-off monitoring and losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) from small (60 - 960 ha) catchments and drainage fields (12 - 77 ha) in Latvia were analyzed. The catchments represent areas with different agricultural production intensity, landscape, soils and climate. Results from the long-term monitoring show (i) large differences in levels of losses between the catchments and fields with different farming intensity, (ii) large annual and interannual variability due to climate impact and soil conditions, (iii) few time trends in nutrient losses. These results are discussed in relation to pollution from non-point and point sources. Besides, these data demonstrate changes in agriculture driven by large-scale changes in land-use intensity. However, despite the increased implementation of mitigation methods by farmers, improvements in water quality at the catchment scale can take a long time. Long-term monitoring programmes to detect trends are required.
The process of questioning the authority of academic history—in the form in which it emerged at the turn of the 19th century—began in the 1970s, when Hayden White pointed out the rhetorical dimension of historical discourse. His British colleague Alun Munslow went a step further and argued that the ontological statuses of the past and history are so different that historical discourse cannot by any means be treated as representation of the past. As we have no access to that which happened, both historians and artists can only present the past in accordance with their views and opinions, the available rhetorical conventions, and means of expression.
The article revisits two examples of experimental history which Munslow mentioned in his The Future of History (2010): Robert A. Rosenstone’s Mirror in the Shrine (1988) and Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht’s In 1926 (1997). It allows reassessing their literary strategies in the context of a new wave of works written by historians and novelists who go beyond the fictional/factual dichotomy. The article focuses on Polish counterfactual writers of the last two decades, such as Wojciech Orliński, Jacek Dukaj, and Aleksander Głowacki. Their novels corroborate the main argument of the article about a turn which has been taking place in recent experimental historying: the loss of previous interest in formal innovations influenced by modernist avant-garde fiction. Instead, it concentrates on demonstrating the contingency of history to strategically extend the unknowability of the future or the past(s) and, as a result, change historying into speculative thinking.
4 - 1
3 - 2
4 - 2
Note: Difference is the difference between estimates from different time points: 1 - the end of treatment program, 2 - after 5 years, 3 - after 10 years, 4 - after 18 years; UT - alcohol utility, BE - beliefs about treatment program benefits, CI - confidence interval, L - CI’s lower bound, U - CI’s upper bound
Temporal profiles of all indicators are