Ileana Teodoru, Iulian Mincu and Gabriela Radulian
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Marija Aja Kocuvan Mijatov and Dušanka Mičetić-Turk
Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic disease caused by an inappropriate immune response to the protein found in grains of wheat (gliadin), rye (secalin), barley (hordeins) and possibly oats (avenin), which are collectively known as prolamins. Patients with coeliac disease should eliminate all food containing gluten (wheat, spelt, rye, kamut, barley, oats), and all products containing listed grains or wheat starch from the diet ( 1 ). Gluten-free (GF) foods are foods that contain up to 20 mg/kg gluten (20 ppm). This applies to both natural GF
Donatella Verbanac, Željan Maleš and Karmela Barišić
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Juraiporn Somboonwong, Khunkhong Huchaiyaphum, Onanong Kulaputana and Phisit Prapunwattana
levels of ketone bodies may evoke a serious metabolic complication known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) [ 1 ].
Lifestyle interventions for the management of diabetes mellitus fundamentally involve exercise and diet. Exercise training is broadly known to have beneficial effects on glycemic control in diabetic patients by improving glucose tolerance, decreasing pancreatic β cell workload and improving insulin sensitivity [ 2 ]. Exercise training can improve glucose homeostasis and fatty acid and ketone metabolism in animal models of diabetes. These include decreased