The paper argues that language learners employ learning strategies naturally. To corroborate the claim it presents a research on vocabulary learning strategies and provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the findings and concludes with some pedagogical suggestions.
During the military operations in Iraq and later in Afghanistan, the capability of force protection, of providing defence against improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and the organization of training courses aimed at enhancing the knowledge of personnel became increasingly important. Previous analyses clearly pointed out that the largest number of military and civil casualties were claimed by such devices.
According to Ekman et al. (1972), happiness is one of the six universal basic human emotions. Kövecses (2000) claims that certain aspects of the conceptualization of emotions are universal or nearuniversal. The paper compares linguistic expressions to discuss the question of the universality of the emotion happiness and its metaphors in English and Russian.
We consider, in the Markovian framework, a multi-dimensional forward - back - ward stochastic differential equation with quadratic growth for the generator function of the backward system. We prove an existence result of the solution and we use this result for pricing and hedging of contingent claims that depend on non-tradeable indexes by portfolios consisting in correlated risky assets.
Ivanka Miletić, Slađana Šobajić and Brižita Đorđević
Funkcionalna Hrana - Uloga U Unapređenju Zdravlja
Funkcionalna hrana je hrana koja ima povoljan uticaj na ljudsko zdravlje mimo uobičajenih nutritivnih funkcija. Biološki aktivna jedinjenja su nosioci povoljnog dejstva funkcionalne hrane. Brojni naučni dokazi govore u prilog tome da je ishrana bogata pojedinim namirnicama (kao što su to na primer voće i povrće) direktno u vezi sa smanjenim rizikom od hroničnih, nezaraznih bolesti, tako da se na tim saznanjima razvio koncept funkcionalne hrane. Otkrivaju se funkcionalne osobine tradicionalnih namirnica, ali se dizajniraju i nove funkcionalne namirnice. Uobičajene izjave koje prate tu vrstu namirnica mogu se svrstati u dve kategorije: (1) izjave o odnosu strukture i funkcije (engl. Structure and function claims) moraju da budu istinite i da ne dovode u zabludu potrošača. Te izjave ne moraju da budu odobrene od strane FDA; (2) zdravstvene izjave (engl. Health claims ili disease-specific claims) moraju da budu autorizovane od strane FDA i da poseduju značajnu naučnu potvrdu (Hillovi kriterijumi). Neophodno je rangiranje dokaza različitih tipova studija koje podržavaju zdravstvenu izjavu. Veliki broj biološki aktivnih jedinjenja su nestabilna tokom tretmana i čuvanja. Ona podležu mnogobrojnim hemijskim reakcijama, kao što su to oksidacija, hidroliza, termička degradacija i Maillardova reakcija, što rezultira smanjenjem bioiskoristljivosti. Povoljan efekat biološki aktivnih jedinjenja direktno zavisi od primenjenog tretmana.
Anglo-American New Criticism was one of the most important movements in the twentieth century literary theories. It stressed the objectivity of a literary work of art and claimed that literary critics as well as teachers should concentrate, primarily, on the text, its linguistic structures and the ambiguities of meaning resulting from them, and only secondarily on the text´s extraliterary relationships. After the New Critics´ popularity in the early decades of the last century, in its second part they were refused as pure formalists, supposedly unable to see the real nature of a literary work in its social circumstances. The article attempts to reassess New Criticism as a movement which contributed significantly to the reading and teaching literature and claims that their importance has not diminished even in the twenty-first century.
The social contracts theory claims that, in social exchange circumstances, human reasoning is not necessarily led by logic, but by certain evolved mental mechanisms that are useful for catching offenders. An emblematic experiment carried out with the intention to prove this thesis is the first experiment described by Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby in their paper of 2000. Lopez Astorga has questioned that experiment claiming that its results depend on an underlying conditional logical form not taken into account by Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby. In this paper, I propose an explanation alternative to that of Lopez Astorga, which does not depend on logical forms and is based on the mental models theory. Thus, I conclude that this other alternative explanation is one more proof that the experiment in question does not demonstrate the fundamental thesis of the social contracts theory.
The present paper comments on signs of American Sign Language in the perspective of relevance theory. The main claim is that classifiers encode procedural instructions to help the addressee pick out the intended referent for the procedural referring expressions made with classifier constructions. The author explains how three classes of classifiers differently manipulate concepts to instruct the addressee to create ad hoc concepts though the use of inference, narrowing, and broadening. It is also claimed that classifier constructions do not encode a conceptual meaning, but a procedural instruction. The discussion includes illustrations of how the speaker’s using classifier constructions instead of lexical signs may increase the number of cognitive effects on the part of the addressee.
Marxists claim capitalists unjustly exploit workers, and this exploitation is to show that workers ought to hold more than they do. This paper presents two accounts of exploitation. The Theft Account claims that capitalists steal some of the value to which workers are entitled. The Underpayment Account holds that capitalists are not entitled to pay workers as little as they do, even if the workers are not entitled to the full value they produce. This paper argues that only the Theft Account can explain why workers ought to hold more than they do. The Underpayment Account cannot yield this conclusion. The Theft Account is superior to the Underpayment Account insofar as exploitation is to be an injustice—a wrong that requires the exploited party to hold more.
The contrast between direct and indirect causation is the most widely discussed semantic distinction in the literature on causative constructions. This distinction has been claimed to correlate with a number of formal parameters, such as formal distance, productivity and length, which are linked to different functional and diachronic explanations based on the principles of iconicity and economy. The present study tests these claims on a typologically representative sample of languages from 46 diverse families, examining four formal variables and their association with (in)directness of causation. According to the data, formal length displays the most pervasive association with the semantic distinction in question, which supports the economy-based explanation. In addition, the relative prominence of the other formal parameters depends on the type of causatives and their stage of grammaticalization.