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Between Language and Consciousness: Linguistic Qualia, Awareness, and Cognitive Models

). The idea of phenomenology. London, Dordrecht: Kluwer. Jackendoff R. (2002). Foundations of Language. Brain, Meaning, Grammar, Evolution, Oxford University Press: New York. Jackendoff R. (2007). Language, Consciousness, Culture, Cambridge: MIT Press. Konderak P. (2005). Model kognitywny zdolności językowych. PhD Thesis. Konderak P. (2007). Modularność umysłu, modularność języka. In Sz. Wrobel (ed.) Modularność umysłu. Poznań-Kalisz: WP-A UAM, 179-206. Konderak P. (2015). On a Cognitive

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Manifest Dream/Association Comparison: A Criterion to Monitor the Psychotherapeutic Field (2nd part) Field Transformations: A Clinical Case

Summary

The present work focuses on the transformations of the psychotherapeutic field through the relationship dynamics that occur within it.

The first part of this article starts with a brief outline of the Gestalt psychological understanding of the field concept, also in its application to the psychotherapeutic situation, followed by a brief review of the introduction of the field concept into the psychoanalytic theory formation.

After this, the first author first presents the theoretical concept underlying a new approach he has developed for observing the relationship dynamics in psychotherapy. Mirroring a formation both psychoanalytic and gestaltic of the main author, this new approach is based on the combination of psychoanalytic and Gestalt psychological concepts. According to the clinical experience and insights of the author, the phenomenological and relational approach of Gestalt theory fits well with the psychoanalytic approach; on this basis, a criterion for recording the progress of therapy can be developed. This criterion is the phenomenology of the development of the qualities of the relationships of the client, as they become visible in his dream narrations and the subsequent associations in the analysis room, and continue to develop during the session and the further course of therapy. The relationship dynamics in the dream narration is thus compared with those that develop in the course of the subsequent associations.

This is demonstrated and further elaborated in the second part of this paper on the basis of a clinical case. The clinical example shows how the relationship dynamics develop in this sense in the individual therapy sessions and over a longer course of therapy. The associated transformations of the therapeutic field give a good indication of the progress of therapy. The main author gained such insights into the transformations of the therapeutic field and the progression of therapy, which are visible in the course of therapy, from the careful application of the criterion “manifest dream/associations comparison of relational dynamics”. In the specific case, there was also a high degree of correspondence between the results of the application of this phenomenological criterion and the empirical evidence of the symptom questionnaire, a self-report measure requested by the patient himself during the course of the therapy.

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Manifest Dream/Association Comparison: A Criterion to Monitor the Psychotherapeutic Field

Summary

The present work focuses on the transformations of the psychotherapeutic field through the relationship dynamics which occur within it.

The first part of this article starts with a brief outline of the Gestalt psychological understanding of the field concept, also in its application to the psychotherapeutic situation, followed by a brief review of the introduction of the field concept into the psychoanalytic theory formation.

After this, the first author first presents the theoretical concept underlying a new approach he has developed for observing the relationship dynamics in psychotherapy. Mirroring a formation of both psychoanalytic and Gestalt theory of the main author, this new approach is based on the combination of psychoanalytic and Gestalt psychological concepts. According to the clinical experience and insights of the author, the phenomenological and relational approach of Gestalt theory fits well with the psychoanalytic approach; on this basis, a criterion for recording the progress of therapy can be developed. This criterion is the phenomenology of the development of the qualities of the relationships of the client, as they become visible in his dream narrations and the subsequent associations in the analysis room and continue to develop during the session and the further course of therapy. The relationship dynamics in the dream narration is thus compared with those which develop in the course of the subsequent associations.

This is demonstrated and further elaborated in the second part of this article on the basis of a clinical case. The clinical example shows how the relationship dynamics develop in this sense in the individual therapy sessions and over a longer course of therapy. The associated transformations of the therapeutic field give a good indication of the progress of therapy.

The main author gained such insights into the transformations of the therapeutic field and the progression of therapy, which are visible in the course of therapy, from the careful application of the criterion “MDAC of relational dynamics”. In the specific case, there was also a high degree of correspondence between the results of the application of this phenomenological criterion and the empirical evidence of the symptom questionnaire, a self-report measure requested by the patient himself during the course of the therapy.

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Emergence, a Universal Phenomenon which Connects Reality to Consciousness, Natural Sciences to Humanities

Abstract

Progress in neuroscience has left a central question of psychism unanswered: what is consciousness? Modeling the psyche from a computational perspective has helped to develop cognitive neurosciences, but it has also shown their limits, of which the definition, description and functioning of consciousness remain essential. From Rene Descartes, who tackled the issue of psychism as the brain-mind dualism, to Chambers, who defined qualia as the tough, difficult problem of research in neuroscience, many hypotheses and theories have been issued to encompass the phenomenon of consciousness. Neuroscience specialists, such as Giulio Tononi or David Eagleman, consider consciousness as a phenomenon of emergence of all processes that take place in the brain. This hypothesis has the advantage of being supported by progress made in the study of complex systems in which the issue of emergence can be mathematically formalized and analyzed by physical-mathematical models. The current tendency to associate neural networks within the broad scope of network science also allows for a physical-mathematical formalization of phenomenology in neural networks and the construction of information-symbolic models. The extrapolation of emergence at the level of physical systems, biological systems and psychic systems can bring new models that can also be applied to the concept of consciousness. The meaning and significance that seem to structure the nature of consciousness is found as direction of evolution and teleological finality, of integration in the whole system and in any complex system at all scales. Starting from the wave-corpuscle duality in quantum physics, we can propose a model for structuring reality, based on the emergence of systems that contribute to the integration and coherence of the entire reality. Physical-mathematical models based mainly on (mereo)topology can provide a mathematical formalization path, and the paradigm of information could allow the development of a pattern of emergence, that is common to all systems, including the psychic system, the difference being given only by the degree of information complexity. Thus, the mind-brain duality, which has been dominating the representation on psychism for a few centuries, could be solved by an informational approach, describing the connection between object and subject, reality and human consciousness, between mind and brain, thus unifying the perspective on natural sciences and humanities.

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Living in the senses and learning with love – John MacMurray’s philosophy of embodied emotion

Philosophy, 5(3), 185-201. Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). The phenomenology of perception. London: Routledge. Noddings, N. (2012). The caring relation in teaching. Oxford Review of Education, 38(6), 771-781. Perlman, D. (2011) Examination of self-determination within the sport education model. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 2(1) 79-92. Pring, R. (2012). Putting persons back into education. Oxford Review of Education, 38(6), 747-760. Pugmire, D. (1998). Rediscovering

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Food for Thought: Of Tables, Art and Women in Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse

References Ahmed, Sara. “A Phenomenology of Whiteness.” Feminist Theory 8.2 (2007): 149-68. Allen, Judith. Virginia Woolf and the Politics of Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2010. Berger, Harry, Jr. Caterpillage: Reflections on Seventeenth-Century Dutch Still Life Painting. New York: Fordham UP, 2011. Bordo, Susan. “Feminist Skepticism and the ‘Maleness’ of Philosophy.” Journal of Philosophy 85.11 (1988): 619-29. Bradshaw, David. “The Socio-Political Vision of the Novels

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Der Spannungsbogen von Autonomie und Verletzlichkeit. Eine phänomenologisch-anthropologische Reflexion / The Unsolved Tension between Autonomy and Vulnerability

-144). Bonn: Bouvier Verlag. Thies, C. (2011). Gehlen zur Einführung. Hamburg: Junius. Toombs, S.K. (1992). The Meaning of Illness: A Phenomenological Account of the Different Perspectives of Physician and Patient. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Toombs, S.K. (2001). Introduction: Phenomenology and Medicine. In S. Kay Toombs (Hrsg.). Handbook of Phenomenology and Medicine (S. 5-10). Dordrecht: Kluwer. Toombs, S.K. (2006). Vulnerability and the Meaning of Illness: Reflections on Lived Experience. In C. Taylor & R. dell

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Barriers to Successful Entrepreneurship for Women in Ukraine

introduction to pure phenomenology (W. R. Boyce Gibson, Trans.). New York: Collier Books. (Original work published 1913). International Finance Corporation (IFC). (2008). Enterprise surveys: Ukraine. Retrieved from http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/ExploreEconomies/?economyid=194&year=2008 Komykh, N. (2001). Gender specifics of entrepreneurship motivation. In V. Ageeva& S. Oksamytna (Eds.), Gender and Culture (pp. 209-214). Kyiv, UA: Osnovy. Kys, O. (2003). The construction models of female gender identity in the modern Ukraine. Independent Cultural Journal “Ï”, 27

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REC: Just Radical Enough

REFERENCES Brewer, B. (2011). Perception and its objects . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Campbell, D. (2014). Review of the book Radicalizing Enactivism by D. D. Hutto and E. Myin. Analysis , 74 (1), 174–176. Colombo, M. (2014a). Explaining social norm compliance: A plea for neural representations. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences , 13 (2), 217–238. Colombo, M. (2014b). Neural representationalism, the Hard Problem of Content and vitiated verdicts: A reply to Hutto & Myin (2013). Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences

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What it is to be an Intentional Object

revision in 2007). URL: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/intentionality-ancient/ Crane, Tim. 2001. Intentional objects. Ratio 14: 336-349. Crane, Tim. 2012. What is the problem of non-existence? Philosophia 40: 417-434. Crane, Tim. 2013. The Objects of Thought . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kripke, Saul. 1980. Naming and Necessity . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Meinong, Alexius. 1960. On the theory of objects. In Realism and the Background of Phenomenology , ed. by Roderick Chisholm. Glencoe, IL: Free Press

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