Andrea Harnos, Nóra Ágh, Péter Fehérvári, Zsolt Karcza, Péter Ócsai and Tibor Csörgő
columns. – R package version 1.8.10; with contributions from Srinivasan, S., Lianoglou, A. & Saporta, R. URL: http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=data.table
Ehnbom, S., Karlsson, L., Ylvén, R. & Åkesson, S. 1993. A comparison of autumn migration strategies in Robins Erithacus rubecula at a coastal and an inland site in southern Sweden. – Ringing & Migration 14(2): 84–93. DOI: 10.1080/03078698.1993.9674049
EURING 2015. The EURING Exchange Code 2000 Plus. – The EuropeanUnion for Bird Ringing, Thetford, UK. URL: http
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4. Dymarski C., Dymarski P., Żywicki J.: Design and strength calculations of the tripod support structure for offshore power plant , Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 22, 1, pp. 36–46, 2015.
5. Grelowska G., Kozaczka E., Kozaczka S., Szymczak W.: Gdansk Bay seabed sounding and classification of its results , Polish Maritime Research,Vol 20, 3, pp. 45–50, 2013
6. Grelowska G., Kozaczka E., Kozaczka S., Szymczak W.:, Underwater noise generated by a small ship in the
Cultural heritage can play a very important role in local and regional development with economic and social effects. The European Union (EU) outlined a specific measure that is aimed at the protection and development of rural heritage within rural development policy in the programming period of 2007–2013. The main aim of this paper is to assess economic and social impacts of projects supported by EU Rural Policy in the Czech Republic during the period of 2007–2013. The implemented projects were located mainly in peripheral rural areas, both near to borders and in inner peripheries, which means that the measure was geographically well targeted. The results of the measure contribute to the restoration and reconstruction of historical monuments, churches, cemeteries and small sacral monuments which create an environment in rural settlements. This environment is very important for the community life and strengthening local identity. In the field of economic development, the results of this measure demonstrate only limited effects in supported villages.
Aslı Özkök, Gül Çelik Çakıroğulları, Kadriye Sorkun, Hatice Gür Yağlı, İbrahim Alsan, Berkay Bektaş and Devrim Kılıç
Bee pollen, an important bee product, is harvested as a food supplement for humans, so it must be safe in terms of toxic components for consumption. The aim of this study is to determine the amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and non dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) in the bee pollen pellets of Apis mellifera L. collected from Çankırı, located in the central Anatolia region of Turkey, between June and July 2014. Six types of pollen belonging to four families: Centaurea triumfettii L. - Asteraceae family; Brassica spp. L. - Brassicaceae family; Cistus spp. L. - Cistaceae family; Onobrychis spp. L., Hedysarum spp. L. and Trifolium spp. L. - Fabaceae family, were determined through microscopic analysis. Dioxin and PCB congeners were determined in a pooled bee pollen sample and all the results were found lower than the European Union regulatory limits for other foods. To the best of our knowledge, this is among the first studies on dioxin analysis in bee pollen worldwide.
Harmonisation of the laws of the Member States regarding the protection of the environment is one of the tasks of the European Union. Poland joined EU in 2004 and took on various commitments for the improvement of water status. In particular, the Water Framework Directive was a major breakthrough in the assessment of aquatic ecosystems. For the classification of stratified and non-stratified lakes Ecological State Macrophyte Index (ESMI) has been used. In Poland, the method for assessing the ecological status of lakes based on macrophytes has been developed for routine water monitoring shortly after joining the European Union. This index is one of the biological elements in the assessment of ecological status. It considers the whole plant communities in the reservoir. The key factor that ESMI reacts to is anthropopressure, which manifests itself as eutrophication. However, it is crucial that the lakes are also subject to different pressures. In this situation, the ESMI rating becomes only an indicative method. The article describes the role, process of evaluation and the most common problems related to ESMI
This paper describes the process and results of a questionnaire survey. The research objective was to determine whether the Czech population has interest in water management. The subject to the creation of the survey was the fact that one of the main objectives of water policy of the European Union, on which water policy of the Czech Republic is based, is the need to increase public awareness of water issues and their involvement in the decision making process. The partial objective was to determine whether there is a difference in interest between those living in the countryside and those living in the city. In this paper a method of quantitative data collection - a questionnaire survey was used. The results show that people have interest in water management. There are no differences between the views of people who live in rural areas and those who live in the city. Great interest is in water supply and related development of water supply and sewerage systems.
Helen Sooväli-Sepping, Egle Kaur and Hannes Palang
Imaginary Landscapes-or is the Truth out there? Dynamics in Landscape Representations in Relation to ‘Real’ Landscapes on Saaremaa Island, Estonia
The emergence of a particular future landscape, among the numerous potential landscapes, depends on policy options, on prevailing attitudes in society, and on cultural values. This is particularly the case for the countries that have recently joined the European Union-specifically the implementation of new policies has changed the function of the rural countryside significantly. In an empirical illustrative case we discuss the change in values on landscape and the conflicting attitudes to landscape in the society on Saaremaa Island (Estonia) in the 20th century. As a background explanation we present the dynamics of the physical landscape and explore the reasons for changes. We then move on to multiple perspectives of how the landscape has been represented in the past as well as today and perceived by different interest groups. Based on that, we finally argue that landscape representations differ from the physical landscape and discuss whether contemporary landscape policy decisions support the actual situation or rather the historical visual imagery.
Doris Marquardt, Judith Möllers and Gertrud Buchenrieder
EU-wide networking: an instrumental valuable for European rural development policies in Romania?
This paper examines the relevance of networking as an instrument for implementing European rural development policies. The LEADER programme of the European Union (EU) supports partnerships and networking within and between rural regions in the EU and aims at advancing rural, regional socio-economic development. LEADER and the establishment of the European and National Networks for Rural Development, respectively, are discussed using the example of the case of Romania, where these measures are currently implemented. The discussion is primarily based on results of 2008 surveys among various stakeholders involved in LEADER in Romania, Hungary and Germany. We conclude that networking is a key factor for successfully implementing rural development policies. This is due to benefits resulting from the exchange of experiences or partnerships, but also due to social control - a hidden effect of networking.
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Cooper, T. et al. (2006). An Evaluation of the Less Favoured Area Measure in the 25 Member States of the EuropeanUnion . Report for DG Agri, London, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP) November, 2006. Avaiable at http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/eval/reports/lfa/full_text_en.pdf
Copa & Cogeca (2011). The future of the CAP after the 2013 . Brussels, 2011
 Areeda, Ph.E. (1996). The Socratic Method. Harvard Law Review , 109(5): 911–922.
 Balcerzak, A. P. (2016a). Technological Potential of European Economy. Proposition of Measurement with Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis. Montenegrin Journal of Economics 12(3), 7–17. DOI: 10.14254/1800-5845.2016/12-3/1.
 Balcerzak, A. P. (2016b). Fiscal Burden in the EuropeanUnion Member States. Economic Annals – XXI , 161(9–10), 4–6. DOI: 10.21003/ea.V161-01.
 Balcerzak, A. P. (2015). Europe 2020