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Dušan Gömöry, Roman Longauer and Diana Krajmerová

:103-122. Isik, F., Keskin, S., McKeand, S. E., 2000: Provenance variation and provenance-site interaction in Pinus brutia Ten.: Consequences of defining breeding zones. Silvae Genetica, 49:213-223. Johnsen, Ø., Daehlen, O. G., Østreng, G., Skrøppa, T., 2005: Daylength and temperature during seed production interactively affect adaptive performance of Picea abies progenies. New Phytologist, 168:589-596. Jonard, M., Legout, A., Nicolas, M., Dambrine, E., Nys, C., Ulrich, E. et al., 2012: Deterioration of Norway spruce vitality despite a sharp

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Tiit Maaten and Malle Kurm

References Ahtikoski, A. 2000. The profitability of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and Silver birch ( Betula pendula Roth) next-generation seed orchards in Finland. Academic dissertation. Helsinki, 146 pp. + appendixes. [WWW document]. - URL http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/maa/mekon/vk/ahtikoski/ Beuker, E., Koski, V. 1997. Adaptation of tree populatsions to climate as reflected by aged provenance tests. - Matyas, C. (ed.). Perspectives of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding in a changing world

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Katarzyna Masternak, Monika Zielińska and Janusz Sabor

References Bałut S. 1991. Ocena bazy nasiennej głównych gatunków drzew leśnych w lasach Karpat i Sudetów na tle selektywnego doboru najlepszych pochodzeń. w: Zagospodarowanie lasów górskich. Synteza wyników badań naukowych przeprowadzonych w latach 1986-1990 w programie CPBR 10.20. Kraków. Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej: 100-107. Bałut S., Sabor J. 2001. Inventory provenance test of Norway Spruce [ Picea a bies (L.) Karst.] IPTNS-IUFRO 1964/68 in Krynica. Part I. Description of the experimental area. Test

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L. F. Ruiz-Talonia, N. M. Sánchez-Vargas, J. S. Bayuelo-Jiménez, S. I. Lara-Cabrera and Cuauhtémoc Sáenz-Romero

References AITKEN, S. N., S. YEAMAN, J. A. HOLLIDAY, T. WANG and S. CURTIS-MCLANE (2008): Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations. Evolutionary Applications 1(1): 95-111. CARRASQUINHO, I. and E. GONÇALVES (2013): Genetic variability among Pinus pinea L. provenances for survival and growth traits in Portugal. Tree Genetics & Genomes 9(3): 855-866. CASTELLANOS-BOLAÑOS, J. F., E. J. T. GARZA, Ó. A. A. CALDERÓN, J. J. PÉREZ, M. MUSALEM-SANTIAGO and R. LÓPEZ-AGUILLÓN (2008

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Melanie Keil and Franz Neubauer

. Draxler I. 1977: Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen von Mooren zur spät- und postglazialen Vegetationsgeschichte im Einzugsgebiet der Traun. Jb. Geol. Bundesanst. , Wien 120, 131-163. Draxler I. & van Husen D. 1978: Zur Einstufung innerwürmzeitlicher Sedimente von Ramsau/Schladming und Hohentauern (Steiermark). Z. Gletscherkunde und Glaziologie 14, 105-114. Dunkl I., Kuhlemann J., Reinecker J. & Frisch W. 2005: Cenozoic relief evolution of the eastern Alps — constraints from Apatite fission track age-Provenance of

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P.G. Suraj, K. Nagabhushana, R. Kamalakannan and M. Varghese

Trop For Sci 24(1): 70–82. Lyngdoh N, Joshi G, Ravikanth G, Vasudeva R, Uma Shaanker R (2013) Changes in genetic diversity parameters in unimproved and improved populations of teak ( Tectona grandis L.f.) in Karnataka state, India. J Genet 92(1):141-145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12041-013-0226-2 Mora F, Saavedra J (2012) Combining genetic gain and diversity under an individual selection method in a selected provenance of Eucalyptus cladocalyx . Plant Breeding, Genetic and Genetic Resources Cien. Inv. Agr. 39(1):177-184. https://doi.org/10.4067/s0718

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Tamás Csibri, Samuel Rybár, Katarína Šarinová, Michal Jamrich, Ľubomír Sliva and Michal Kováč

edition. Rider-French Consulting Limited , 1–440. Rybár S., Kováč M., Šarinová K., Halásová E., Hudáčková N., Šujan M., Kováčová M., Ruman A. & Klučiar T. 2016: Neogene changes in palaeogeography, palaeoenvironment and the provenance of sediment in the Northern Danube Basin. Bull. Geosci. 91, 2, 367–398. Sant K., V. Palcu D., Mandic O. & Krijgsman W. 2017: Changing seas in the Early–Middle Miocene of Central Europe: a Mediterranean approach to Paratethyan stratigraphy. Terra Nova. 29, 273–281. Sztanó O., Kováč M., Magyar I., Šujan M., Fodor L

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Štefan Méres, Roman Aubrecht, Michał Gradziński and Milan Sýkora

References Aubrecht, R. 1993. Clastic admixture in Dogger crinoidal limestones of Czorsztyn Unit. Geologica Carpathica , 44 , 105-111. Aubrecht, R. 2001. Jurassic heavy mineral distribution provinces of the Western Carpathians. Mineralia Slovaca , 33 , 473-486. Aubrecht, R. and Meres, Š. 1999. Possible Moldanubic provenance of the Pieniny Klippen Belt crystalline basement deduced from detrital garnets. Carpathian Geology 2000 symp., Smolenice, 11th-14 th Oct. 1999. Geologica Carpathica , 50

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Slavomír Nehyba, Jiří Otava, Pavla Tomanová Petrová and Adéla Gazdová

: Provenance of the detrital garnets and spinels from the Albian sediments of the Czorsztyn Unit (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians, Slovakia). Geol. Carpath. 60, 463–483. Baker V.R. 1984: Flood sedimentation in bedrock fluvial systems. In: Koster E.H. & Steel R.J. (Eds.): Sedimentology of Gravels and Conglomerates. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists , Memoir 10, 87–98. Batík P., Čtyroký P., Gabriel M., Holásek O., Klečák J., Líbalová J., Mátl V., Matějovská O., Střída M., Šalanský K., Štych J. & Zeman A. 1983: Explanations to the geological

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Elżbieta Chomicz

Abstract

The incidence and severity of butt rot were assessed in 12 selected Norway spruce seed stands in the Beskidy Mountains, Poland. A semi-invasive technique of sonic tomography was used for the assessment of rot damage. Stands of different age classes (100-120, 130-150, 160-170 years old) and distinct regions of provenance (Istebna and Orawa) were investigated. Hierarchical analysis of variance was used to determine effects of stand age and stand provenance on butt rot occurrence at a stand level. High incidence of butt rot was noted in all of the studied seed stands (47% to 87% of diagnosed tree samples). Stand age had a significant effect on percentage share of ‘damaged wood’ on the tomogram. The extent of rot damage was rising with stand age, and the largest was observed in the age category 160-170 years. Spruce stands of Istebna provenance were generally more damaged by butt rot than those of Orawa provenance, however, the latter have been growing in forest sites more suitable for spruce in terms of fertility and altitude. Hierarchical analysis of variance did not show a statistically significant relationship between the region of provenance and average share of ‘damaged wood’ on the tomogram. Presented results indicate that for stands growing in similar conditions vulnerability to butt rot is determined by stand age. Further research is needed to separate impact of stand provenance identified with specific genetic constitution of a population from the effect of environmental conditions typical of a given region of provenance.