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Przewłocki Sławomir and Ronikier Aleksander


Introduction: Terminal patients require proper care standards and professional team of doctors, physiotherapists, social workers, educators, psychologists and clergy directly involved in mitigating the suffering of a dying person. A physiotherapist as a member of such a team should be focused on sustaining the patient’s quality of life until the end at the level relevant to the patient’s health state. This quality of life should be perceived integrally as a combination of procedures reducing pain and physical suffering as well as improving physical fitness and mental well-being.

Material and methods:The aim of the research was to define the role of physiotherapy in assessing mental and physical state of terminal patients; to determine the applicability of ADLs, GDS and BDI in diagnosing the validity and usefulness of tiresome physiotherapeutic procedures for terminal patients and to assess the applied tests in predicting terminal patients’ survival time. The research was carried out on the turn of 2012 and 2013 in the group of 103 subjects (74 females - 71.8% and 29 males - 28.2%) For the research the following methods were used:

- Activity of Daily Living scale (ADL)-

- Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

- Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)

- Questionnaire regarding their willingness to participate in physiotherapeutic procedures.

Results: In the research the range of diagnostic possibilities of the applied scales and tests, correlations between theses scales and tests as well as correlations between them and subjects’ age and survival time were assessed. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was carried out which assessed the willingness to participate in physiotherapeutic procedures. Strong stress, terminal state of the patient and generalisation of symptoms brought about the fact that only 14.6% of patients declared their willingness to participate in physiotherapeutic procedures.


1. Implementing physiotherapeutic and psychological diagnostic tests in everyday terminal care makes it easier to assess survival time of terminal patients and significantly improves their life and dying with dignity

2. Proper understanding of the symptoms of dying must serve as a basis for organising adequate activities compliant with the progress of a disease of a terminal patient without disturbing the process of dying.

3. Modern physiotherapy in terminal care should limit the range of physiotherapeutic procedures and physical therapy while increasing psychological care in this population.

Open access

M Rogac and B Peterlin

stress-regulatory systems [ 11 ]. Accumulated stress appears to negatively impact our ability to respond to stress, and also affects how we perceive stress in relation to our emotional response to environment. Adaptation to stress has its own consequences, including outcomes such as preterm birth. Early life experiences appear to increase human susceptibility for anxiety and depression that are known risk factors for preterm birth [ 12 , 13 , 14 ]. Chronic stressors are recognized for being particularly salient among poor and minority women, that is, women who also

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Mateja Bahun and Brigita Savič

Peer support in patients with tipe 2 diabetes

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes affects people in their productive years and significantly influences their quality of life. Organized peer support provided by specially trained patients or volunteers who have experience with diabetes can be of crucial importance in supporting a patient's endeavours to lead a healthy lifestyle while managing the disease.

Objective: The aim of this research was to establish whether organized peer support exists in diabetes organizations of the Gorenjska region, Slovenia, and how patients feel about the usefulness of and the need for implementing a peer support system.

Methods: The sample included 78 respondents, accounting for 58.6% of all type 2 diabetes cases treated for the first time at the specialist diabetes clinic of the Jesenice General Hospital in 2009. The participants were given a questionnaire in which they indicated the level of agreement with the given statements on a five-point scale. The Cronbach alpha for all 18 statements was 0.71.

Results: Organized peer support is not yet available for members of diabetes organizations in the Gorenjska region. Most respondents do not perceive diabetes as a source of great emotional stress or as a reason for a lower quality of life. Patients receiving insulin therapy (p=.013), and those with chronic complications (p=.037), reported significant deterioration in quality of life. Women were more eager to learn how their peers manage their lives (p=.045), and to obtain information from experienced peers to help and support them (p=.032). A positive correlation was found between the respondents' opinion that diabetes presents a source of high emotional stress and that shearing experience with peers would help them reduce this stress (r=.517, p=.000); that peer experience would help them in everyday, practical situations (r=.306, p=.007); and that peer experience would help them manage their life with diabetes better (r=.447, p=.000).

Discussion: The research results stressed the need for introduction of peer support. We were surprised by the patients' low level of awareness regarding the benefits they could derive from talking to peers. Peer support interventions would bring the desired level of quality to the concept of personalization in diabetes care. Treatment practices for patients with diabetes in Slovenia have shown that organizing a peer support system is considered an option, but has not yet become a standard practice. Peer support can be a powerful source of empowerment and of individualisation of treatment. Its implementation, however, will have to involve the active participation of members of health care teams treating patients with diabetes.

Open access

S. Roslan, N. Ahmad, N. Nabilla and Z. Ghiami

. Ryff, C.D. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, 57(6): 1069-81. 6. Yang, Y.-T.T. Stress, coping, and psychological well-being: Comparison among American and Asian international graduate students from Taiwan, China, and South Korea, 2010. 7. Lovitts, B.E. Being a good course taker is not enough: A theoretical perspective on the transition to independent research. Studies in Higher Education, 2005, 30(2): 137-154. 8. Abiddin, N.Z. and A. Ismail

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Maja Rožman, Sonja Treven, Vesna Čančer and Marijan Cingula

). Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Cortisol Responses to Awakening. Psychosomatic medicine, 61 (2), 197-204, Rumbles, S., & Rees G. (2013). Continuous Changes, Organizational Burnout and the Implications for HRD. Industrial and Commercial Training, 45 (4), pp. 236-242, Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in Work Organizations. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. New York: Wiley, Suner-Soler, R., Grau-Martína, A

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Marcelo Ricardo Cabral Dias, Roberto Simão, Geraldo Heleno Ribeiro Machado, Hélio Furtado, Nelson Fortuna Sousa, Helder Miguel Fernandes and Francisco José Félix Saavedra

walking/running exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2004; 36: 1776-1780 Vazou-Ekkekakis S, Ekkekakis P. The intensity of physical activity: does the loss of perceived autonomy matter? Hell J Psychol, 2009; 6: 125-144 Wardwell KK, Focht BC, Courtney Devries A, O'connell AA, Buckworth J. Affective responses to selfselected and imposed walking in inactive women with high stress: a pilot study. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2013; 53: 701-712 Whithers RT, Brooks AG, Gunn SM, Plummer JL, Gore CJ, Cormack J. Self-selected exercise

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Michał K. Zarobkiewicz, Mirosław A. Sławiński, Mateusz M. Woźniakowski, Ewelina Wawryk-Gawda, Emilia Kulak-Janczy, Sylwia Korzeniowska and Barbara Jodłowska-Jędrych

students from different semesters. Rev Assoc Medica Bras. 2017;63:21-8. 5. Radcliffe C, Lester H. Perceived stress during undergraduate medical training: a qualitative study. Med Educ. 2003;37:32-8. 6. Dahlin M, Joneborg N, Runeson B. Stress and depression among medical students: a cross-sectional study. Med Educ. 2005;39:594-604. 7. Popa-Velea O, Diaconescu L, Mihăilescu A, et al. Burnout and its relationships with alexithymia, stress, and social support among Romanian medical students: a cross-sectional study. Int J

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Milana Drumond Ramos Santana, Eli Carlos Martiniano, Larissa Raylane Lucas Monteiro, Maria Do Socorro Santos De Oliveira, Vitor E. Valenti, David M. Garner, Franciele Marques Vanderlei and Luiz Carlos De Abreu

for reporting and planning heart rate variability case-control studies. Psychophysiology 2017; 54(3): 344-9. 18. Lovell B, Moss M, Wetherell MA. Perceived stress, common health complaints and diurnal patterns of cortisol secretion in young, otherwise healthy individuals. Horm Behav 2011; 60(3): 301-5. 19. Jensen MA, Garde AH, Kristiansen J, Nabe-Nielsen K, Hansen AM. The effect of the number of consecutive night shifts on diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV): a systematic review of field studies. Int

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Leyla Tavacioglu, Kaan Kora, Erkut Atilgan and Canan Savran

Parents, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1984. 31.2:170-178. Luthans F. Organizational Behavior, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992 Murray HA, Kluckhohn C. Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture, New York, Knopf, A. A. Second Revised Edition. Hardcover, 1953.IX:701-716 Marchant-Haycox SE, Wilson GD. Personality and Stress in Performing Artist, Personality and Individual Differences, UK, 1992.13:1061-1068 Savran C. Sıfat Listesinin (Adjective Check List) Türkiye

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Albena Alexandrova, Lubomir Petrov, Nikolay Zaekov, Borislav Bozhkov and Zshivka Zsheliaskova-Koynova

Publishers, Inc, Champaign, IL [7]. Kolimechkov, S. T.; Petrov, L. A., Alexandrova, A. V., Atanasov, P., Nutrition and physical development assessment of pre-school and primary school children practising artistic gymnastics, African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences. 2016, 22, 2:2, 565-577. [8]. Brink, M. S.; Visscher, C., Coutts, A. J., Lemmink, K. A. P. M., Changes in perceived stress and recovery in overreached young elite soccer players, Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2012, 22, 2, 285