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Hieronim Golczyk

. Inter-homolog crossing-over and synapsis in Arabidopsis meiosis are dependent on the chromosome axis protein AtASY3. PloS Genet. 8(2), e1002507. 23. Flagg R. O. 1958. A mutation and an inversion in Rhoeo discolor . J. Hered. 49, 185-188. 24. Garcia-Velazquez A. 1991. Cytogenetical studies in Rhoeo spathacea ( Commelinaceae ). I. A desynaptic and second division restitution mutant. Genome 34, 895-899. 25. Garcia-Velazquez A. 1994. A desynaptic mutant in Rhoeo spathacea ( Commelinaceae ). Caryologia 59, 399

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Xuemei Li and Xiaoxia Li

the main cause of chronic mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection in East Asia [ 23 ]. The HBV genome is unique and precise in structure but is susceptible to mutation, and mutation at certain specific sites may be associated with chronic HBV infection. The preS deletion mutation is the most frequently reported mutation. A large in-frame deletion mutation has been detected in the preS region of the gene encoding the HBV envelope protein, and the mutation sites are often clustered at the 3′ end of the preS1 region and the 5′ end of the preS2 region [ 24

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Gábor Mészáros

pedigrees is that they neither exist nor are accurate for many of the livestock breeds, which negates or seriously hampers any effort to assess genetic diversity. With the availability of molecular markers such as microsatellites, and more recently single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and whole genome sequence data, it is possible to analyze diversity on a genomic level. The dense marker genotypes negate the necessity to have historical records, and thus, all problems associated with pedigrees. It allows a more precise assessment of relatedness accounting for Mendelian

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Isao Matsushita and Hideshi Yanase

. 2008. Genomic comparison and proteomic characterization of Thermus thermophilus bacteriophages P23-45 and P74-26: Siphoviruses with triplex-forming sequences and the longest known tails. J. Mol. Biol. 378: 468-480. Naryshkina T., Liu J., Florens L., Swanson S. K., Pavlov A. R., Pavlova N. V., Inman R., Kozyavkin S. A., Washburn M., Mushegian A., Severinov K. 2006. Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage φYS40 genome and proteomic characterization of virions. J. Mol. Biol. 364: 667-677. Oshima T., Imahori K. 1974

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Małgorzata Podwyszyńska, Dorota Kruczyńska, Aleksandra Machlańska, Barbara Dyki and Iwona Sowik

structure of tetraploid apple leaves cultured in vitro . Annals of Botany 73: 651–654. C onsidine MJ, W an Y, D’A ntuono MF, Z hou Q, H an M, G ao H, and W ang M. 2012. Molecular genetic features of polyploidization and aneuploidization reveal unique patterns for genome duplication in diploid Malus . PloS One 7: e29449. C rane MB, and L awrence WJC. 1930. Fertility and vigour of apples in relation to chromosome number. Journal of Genetics 22: 153–163. D ickson EE, A rumuganathan K, K resovich S, and D oyle JJ. 1992. Nuclear DNA

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Klaudia Pawlina and Monika Bugno-Poniewierska

References Brinkmeyer - Langford C., Raudsepp T., Gustafson - Seabury A., Chowdhary B. P. (2008). A BAC contig map over the proximal approximately 3.3 Mb region of horse chromosome 21. Cytogenet. Genome Res., 120: 164-172. Bugno M., Klukowka - Rotzler J., Słota E., Witarski W., Gerber V., Leeb T. (2007). Fluorescent in situ hybridization mapping of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in donkey. J. Anim. Breed. Genet., 124: 172-174. Bugno M., Słota E., Witarski W., Gerber V

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M Mihaylova, R Staneva, D Toncheva, M Pancheva and S Hadjidekova

(multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification), have enhanced the diagnosis, but they require preliminary information on the suspected chromosomal abnormality and on the location. The new genomic technologies such as micro- array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS), combine the advantages of conventional technologies, enabling whole-genome screening in high resolution. At present, great interest has arisen in a newly discovered variation known as copy number variations (CNVs), which, in 2007, was indicated to be the

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Jl Ballescá and Rafael Oliva

References 1. Mezquita C. Chromatin composition, structure and function in spermatogenesis. Revis Biol Celular. 1985; 5: V-XIV, 1-124. 2. Oliva R, Dixon GH. Vertebrate protamine genes and the histone-to-protamine replacement reaction. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1991; 40: 25-94. 3. Oliva R. Protamines and male infertility. Hum Reprod Update. 2006; 12(4): 417-435. 4. Balhorn R. The protamine family of sperm nuclear proteins. Genome Biol. 2007; 8(9): 227.1-227.8. 5

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M. Navascués, G. G. Vendramin and B. C. Emerson

. MILLER (2002): Comparing relative rates of pollen and seed gene flow in the island model using nuclear and organelle measures of population structure. Genetics 162: 1897-1909. HEDRICK, P. W. (2001): Conservation genetics: where are we now? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16: 629-636. HU, X. S. and R. A. ENNOS (1999): Impacts of seed and pollen flow on population genetic structure for plant genomes with three contrasting modes of inheritance. Genetics 152: 441-450. ISIK, K. and N. KARA (1997): Altitudinal variation in Pinus

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Agnieszka Łaba-Stefanek, Ewelina Dziwota and Marcin Olajossy

badania asocjacyjne całego genomu (GWAS) wniosły do psychiatrii?, 2013. 8. Bergen S.E., Petryshen T.L. Genome-wide association studiem (GWAS) of schizophrenia: does bigger lead to better results?, 2013. 9. Hosak L., Silhan P., Hosakowa J. Genomic copy number variations: A breakthrough in our knowledge on schizophrenia etiology?, 2012. 10. Kotlar A.V., Mercer K.B., Zwick M.E., Mulle J.G. New discoveries in schizophrenia genetics reveal neurobiological pathways: A review of recent findings, 2015 11. Gumerov V., Hegyi H. MicroRNA-derived network