Lidija Dimitrijević, Marko Aleksandrović, Dejan Madić, Tomislav Okičić, Dragan Radovanović and Daniel Daly
validity of the gross motor function classification systemfor cerebral palsy. Pediatr Phys Ther, 2003; 15(4): 247-252
Chrysagis N, Douka A, Nikopoulos M, Apostolopoulou F, Koutsouki D. Effects of an aquatic program on gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Biol Exerc, 2010; 5(2): 13-25
Cole A, Becker B., editors. Comprehensive aquatic therapy. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2004
Čoh M, Jovanović-Golubović D, Bratić M. Motor learning in sport. Facta Univ Phys Educ Sport
Biljana Stern, Tanja Hojs Fabjan, Ksenija Rener-Sitar and Lijana Zaletel-Kragelj
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease complexly deteriorating the health of the patients ( 1 ). According to the World Health Organisation MS is classified among major public health problems ( 2 ) and in Europe, it is considered the leading cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults ( 3 ). The effect of disability in daily living is reported to be greater in comparison to other chronic diseases ( 4 - 6 ).
The impact of MS on health has been determined mainly through the physical disability measures over the past
PH, Machado LA. Can we explain heterogeneity among randomized clinical trials of exercise for chronic back pain? A meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. PhysTher, 2010b; 90: 1383-403
16. Ferreira PH, Ferreira ML, Maher CG, Refshauge K, Herbert RD, Hodges PW. Changes in recruitment of transversus abdominis correlate with disability in people with chronic low back pain. Brit J Sport Med, 2010a; 44: 1166-72
17. Fig G. Sport-specific conditioning: strength training for swimmers - training the core. Strength Cond J
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Kearney, E., Shellikeri, S., Martino, R., & Yunusova, Y. (2018). Augmented visual feedback-aided interventions for motor rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review. Disability and Rehabilitation , 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2017.1419292
Kremers, H. M., Larson, D. R., Crowson, C. S., Kremers, W. K., Washington, R. E., Steiner, C. A., . . . Berry, D. J. (2015). Prevalence of
Paul Richard Inglis, Kenji Doma and Glen Bede Deakin
Rugby league is a collision sport that is played at both the junior and senior levels in contrasting environments around the world. Unfortunately, muscular skeletal injuries are common in this sport due to the physical nature of the game. While many studies have investigated the incidence of injury amongst senior rugby league players, only few have focused on the incidence of injury in junior players ( King et al., 2014 ). Furthermore, all the studies that examined the incidence of injuries in junior rugby league players have been conducted in
Judit Kopkáné Plachy, Magdolna Vécseyné Kovách, Ferenc Ihász and József Bognár
.R. Colberg, H.K. Parson, T. Nunnold, A.I. Vinik (2004) Effects of 8 weeks of flexibility and resistance training in older adults with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Car, 27(12): 2988–2989. DOI:10.2337/diacare. 27.12.2988.
12. Karakiriou S.K., H.T. Douda, I.G. Smilios, K.A. Volaklis, S.P. Tokmakidis (2012) Effects of vibration and exercise training on bone mineral density and muscle strength in post – menopausal women. Eur. J. Sport Sci., 12(1): 81-88. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2010.536581
13. Karinkanta S., R. Nupponen, O.A. Heinonen, M. Pasanen, H. Sievänen, K
Mansoorehossadat Rozan, Vahid Rouhollahi, Amit Rastogi and Dilip Kumar Dureha
Sport and exercise are stressful by their nature, and over-stressful activity may produce injury ( Clement et al., 1981 ). The lumbar spine is subjected to considerable stress during many athletic endeavors; therefore, abnormalities involving this region may cause injuries and pain among athletes because of the unique demands of the related sport.
Independent variables that contribute individually or in combination to lumbar spine injury include poor technique, poor conditioning, and abnormal anatomy; thus, young athletes may have a spinal
-ordination and, in general, there is a decrease in the level of physical and functional activity ( 6 ).
Reduced physical functioning is the most dominant sign of frailty ( 7 , 8 ). The ageing associated loss of muscle mass seems to be one of the major causes for reduced physical abilities in older age and, consequently, disability and frailty ( 9 ). There are many influences contributing to this process, for example, motor neuron death, and hormonal and immunological changes as a normal part of ageing ( 10 ). On the other hand, there are additional behavioural influences
Ewa Dziuba, Justyna Drzał-Grabiec, Aleksandra Truszczyńska-Baszak, Katarzyna Guzek and Katarzyna Zajkiewicz
26. Morris A.M., Williams J.M., Atwater A.E., Wilmore J.H. (1982) Age and sex differences in motor performance of 3 through 6 year old children. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 53(3): 214-221. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1982.10609342.
27. Msall M.E., Tremont M.R. (2002) Measuring functional outcomes after prematurity: developmental impact of very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight status on childhood disability. Ment. Retard. Dev. Disabil. Res. Revi., 8(4): 258-272. DOI: 10.1002/mrdd.10046.
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Anna Brachman, Anna Kamieniarz, Justyna Michalska, Michał Pawłowski, Kajetan J. Słomka and Grzegorz Juras
smooth and coordinated neuromuscular actions ( Winter, 1995 ; Zatsiorsky and Duarte, 1999 ). Efficient postural balance not only reduces the risk of body imbalance, fall, or subsequent injuries, but also contributes to the optimization of motor performance in a number of athletic disciplines ( Hrysomallis, 2007 ; McGuine et al., 2000 ; Watson, 1999 ).
Each sport involves specific motor skills that require the completion of particular postures and movements ( Hrysomallis et al., 2006 ; Maurer et al., 2006 ; Paillard, 2017 ). Balance is an important factor in many