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Marta Vaculínová

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to show the situation of the National Museum Library (NML) in the period of 1939–1945 based on archival documents. Central changes made by the Nazis affected people as well as their work in the NML. It was not possible to continue as before – some employees had been arrested or executed by the Gestapo. Nevertheless, the number of the NML staff increased as a result of the transfer of officials from the closed Ministry of War and Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Two employees of German nationality joined the NML based on the new rules concerning the relations between Czechs and Germans in public services. The operation of the library came under the supervision of Professor Carl Wehmer, who planned a cataloguing reform, was in charge of the book collections and ensured their later evacuation. The plans for a new NML exhibition were cancelled and replaced by propagandistic exhibitions imported from Germany, such as Deutsche Größe. The Nazi ideologists planned to return the National Museum and its library to the original idea of the land museum. Also Emil Franzel, a former leading member of the German Social Democracy in Czechoslovakia, a later member of the Sudeten German Party and in 1940–1941 an official in the NML, followed the idea of a land museum in his book History of the National Museum Library (Prague 1942), the first monograph on the history of the NML.

Open access

Stephen I. Ocheni and Michael Sunday Agba

Abstract

The paper focuses on fiscal decentralization, public expenditure management and human capital development in Nigeria. It presents a synergical relationship/nexus between fiscal decentralization, public expenditure management and human capital development and sees fiscal decentralization as an imperative necessity of empowering levels of government with financial resources to bring government closer to the people by the rendition of social services to people within their jurisdictions. The paper further argues that assigned fiscal responsibilities of governmental agencies must be backed up with prudent management of public expenditure (recurrent and capital) which should be aptly targeted at developing the human resources considered as the kingpin of true developmental efforts in any society. Nigeria, a social formation with an estimated population of 180 million persons and the largest economy in Africa has consistently failed in fostering the development of its human capital through budgetary allocations and implementation, fiscal decentralization and public expenditure management. To arrest the trend, the paper calls for a sustained commitment on the part of government in the development of the nation’s resources through sustained budgetary allocations in education, health, agriculture, infrastructural development, training and retraining of workers, power, science and technology and execution of people oriented public programmes/projects.

Open access

Hrvoje Lepeduš, Mario Jakopec, Jasenka Antunović Dunić, Goran Krizmanić, Sanida Osmanović and Vera Cesar

Abstract

Despite numerous data dealing with the biogenesis of photosynthetic membranes connected with specific functional alterations in higher plants this is still an insufficiently understood topic and is one of the most promising areas of research in plant biochemistry. The main goal of our study was to detect the impact of different temperatures on chlorophyll biosynthesis and the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm). Therefore, we investigated the greening processes in etiolated sunflower cotyledons (Helianthus annuus L.) grown at different temperatures (10, 20 and 30 °C) during 24 h. The dynamics of chlorophyll a and b (Chl a and Chl b) accumulation as well as photosystem II (PSII) effi ciency were observed. We also evaluated combined effects of different temperatures (20 and 30 °C) and short-term application of increased irradiation (800 μmol m-2 s-1) on effective quantum yield of PSII (ΔF/F’m) and non photochemical quenching (NPQ) in cotyledons with fully developed PSII. Our results showed reduced chlorophyll accumulation and the arrest of PSII assembly at 10 °C in comparison with 20 and 30 °C. Further, the increased irradiance induced equal down regulation of effective quantum yield of PSII at 20 and 30 °C, with significantly higher capability of heat dissipation at 30 °C.

Open access

Ioan Țilea, Codruța Gal, Andreea Varga and Roxana Rudzik

Abstract

Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a cardiomyopathy that can either result from arrested or abnormal myocardial morphogenesis during heart development, or can be acquired later in life. Current practice guidelines recommend different strategies for the management of patients with LVNC. Common clinical features of this disease include cardiac failure, thromboembolism, life-threatening arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death, which could indicate a worse prognosis. The disease may occur alone or in association with other congenital cardiac, neuromuscular, mitochondrial or metabolic disorders. The association of left ventricular non-compaction with other structural cardiac congenital diseases (such as atrial or ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, obstruction of ventricular outflow tract) is rare. As clinical manifestations of LVNC are non-specific, particular imaging modalities (echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging or ECG gated computed tomography) should be used in order to establish the diagnosis of LVNC. Antiarrhythmic drugs and implantable cardioverter defibrillators may be considered for the management of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with ventricular non-compaction. We report the presentation, diagnosis and management of a 46 year-old female with refractory severe cardiac failure, repeated syncope due to LVNC and atrial septal defect, requiring medical therapy and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator as a "life bridge" to heart transplantation.

Open access

Ian Birch

Abstract

This article outlines the rise of the Fifth Monarchists, a religiously inspired and politically motivated movement which came to prominence in the 1650s and believed the execution of Charles I cleared the way for King Jesus to return and reign with the saints from the throne of England. The imminent establishment of the Kingdom of Christ on earth was of great interest to Baptists, some of whom were initially drawn to the Fifth Monarchy cause because Fifth Monarchy theology provided a political route to a reformed society in England. While Baptists in the 1650s greatly desired to advance the cause of King Jesus the increasingly revolutionary methods employed by the Fifth Monarchists were at odds with their understanding of the spiritual nature of Christ’s kingdom, thus exposing differences in their respective eschatologies. Finally, observing the ambitious zeal of the Fifth Monarchist programme Baptists disavowed the anarchic revolutionary approach and distanced themselves from the movement. This breach, regarded as apostasy by the Fifth Monarchists, came at a fortunate time for the Baptist cause before the revolution was stamped out and the leaders arrested. The rise and fall of the Fifth Monarchists, however, helped Baptists to clarify the nature and methods of their approach to establishing the kingdom of Christ among the saints on earth, and is therefore worthy of consideration for those wishing to understand the beginning of the Baptists in England and the nature of apocalyptic during the interregnum.

Open access

Z. S. Bondarenko and O. I. Zinenko

Abstract

Capture-mark-recapture data was used to infer growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Vedmederja, Grubant et Rudaeva, 1986), in the Eastern Ukraine. We have found that growth rate is negatively correlated with age. The difference in growth rates before maturation is not significant between different sexes. Growth rates decrease rapidly after maturation in males and females, however adult males retain significantly higher average growth rates. There is large dispersion of growth rates in the group of adult females, which is caused, probably, by alteration of complete arrest of growth in the years with reproduction and more intensive growth in the years without it. Asymptotic snout-ventral length estimated after Von Bertalanffy model was 680 mm in females and 630 mm in males. Females mature after fifth and males mature after fourth hibernation. The larger females in vipers can not be the result of higher growth rates in females, but are the outcome of a combination of other factors including different maturation time and size (older and being larger), and, perhaps, longer life span due to lower mortality. Growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper in the nature are higher than in other species in the group of small Eurasian vipers.

Open access

Jesenko Tešan and Joan Davison

Abstract

This paper examines the source and consequences of permanent liminality in the political-legal administration of the Byzantine Empire. The paper argues ambiguous and incomplete identities of individuals, groups, and society associated with certain authoritarian political arrangements and consequent arrested liminal period(s) contributed to the decline of the Empire. Further, and significantly, the unresolved situation of disaggregated identity, or spirited away demos, persisted in the Ottoman Era and continues to infect contemporary socio-political affairs in regions in the Balkans and other countries of the former Soviet Union which now seek to balance the interests of a nation-state with the diversity of Europe. The paper does not consider the Orthodox Spirit, but rather analyzes the role of pseudo-intellectuals and sophists who derail the democratic and philosophical Hellenist traditions with authoritarian policies and tools. The research compares and links the institutional attempts of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires to manage and manipulate differences and distinctions through mechanisms such as theatricalization and the millets. The argument concludes that these strategies created the basis for the perpetualization of the sick man of Europe to the extent they focused on juggling the distinctions and identities of the empires rather than pursuing the development of the democratic self. Thus, in liminality is revealed and contained undead and viral authoritarian spirits, sometimes manifested in populist or extremist ethnic leaders, whose technologies trick the demos and disrupt the democratic imagination.

Open access

Paweł Lorkowski and Bronisław Gosowski

Abstract

The paper presents experimental and numerical studies to determine the equivalent second moment of area of the uniform torsion of the two-chord steel single laced members. The members are used as poles of railway traction network gates, and steel columns of framed buildings as well. The stiffness of uniform torsion of this kind of columns allows to the determine the critical loads of the spatial stability. The experimental studies have been realized on a single - span members with rotation arrested at their ends, loaded by a torque applied at the mid-span. The relationship between angle of rotation of the considered cross-section and the torque has been determined. Appropriate numerical model was created in the ABAQUS program, based on the finite element method. A very good compatibility has been observed between experimental and numerical studies. The equivalent second moment of area of the uniform torsion for analysed members has been determined by comparing the experimental and analytical results to those obtained from differential equation of non-uniform torsion, based on Vlasov’s theory. Additionally, the parametric analyses of similar members subjected to the uniform torsion, for the richer range of cross-sections have been carried out by the means of SOFiSTiK program. The purpose of the latter was determining parametrical formulas for calculation of the second moment of area of uniform torsion.

Open access

Barbara Sienkiewicz

Summary

The interwar verse of Aleksander Wat and Czesław Miłosz provides us with ample proof that both poets came to share a pessimism about the future course of European civilization. That belief led them both to develop a sympathy with the political left and, at the same time, an interest in religion. The shift to the left, however, was arrested as soon it became clear to them that this worldview offered no solution to the problem of evil in the world. Nor were they satisfied with the traditional answer to the question unde malum? that could be found in European culture rooted in its Catholic heritage. Having reached that point both poets turned to Gnosticism, a system of thought to which the problem of metaphysical evil is absolutely central. It is that philosophy and its rich symbolism that supplied them with a number of motifs to express their vision of the decline and fall of civilization. The article traces and analyzes the Gnostic ideas, motifs, images and symbols that express and give shape to the pessimistic vision of both Wat and Miłosz. It also argues that their ‘iconoclastic’ attitude which manifests itself among others in polemical reinterpretations of Old Testament texts is a consequence of their fascination with the Gnostic worldview.

Open access

Shu-Hua Zhao, Fan Zhao, Jing-Ying Zheng, Li-Fang Gao, Xue-Jian Zhao and Man-Hua Cui

Knockdown of stat3 expression by RNAi inhibits in vitro growth of human ovarian cancer

Background. The aim of the study was to investigate the suppressive effects of pSilencer2.1-U6-siRNA-stat3 recombinant plasmids on the growth of ovarian cancer in vitro.

Material and methods. Three pairs of DNA template (stat3-1, stat3-2, stat3-3) specific for different target sites on stat3 mRNA were synthesized to reconstruct pSilencer2.1-U6-siRNA-stat3s, which were transfected into SKOV3 cells. The expressions of STAT3, BcL-2, cyclin D1 and C-myc in these cells were detected by Western blot and Northern blot. The cell cycle and the growth were determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and MTT assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining.

Results. Of the three siRNAs, only siRNA targeting stat3-3 markedly suppressed the protein expression of stat3 in SKOV3 cells; MTT assay and FCM showed that transfection of stat3-3 siRNA could significantly suppress the growth of SKOV3 cells and arrest the cell cycle in vitro. TUNEL staining also showed massive apoptosis in SKOV3 cells transfected with stat3-3 siRNA.

Conclusions. pSilencer2.1-U6-siRNA-stat3-3 can significantly inhibit the STAT3 expression in human ovarian cancer cells resulting in the inhibition of the cancer growth and the increase of apoptosis of cancer cells.