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Agnieszka Jamiołkowska and Krzysztof Sawicki
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Anna Kapczyńska and Agnieszka Kidawska
The genus Lachenalia has great potential as a floriculture crop used as a pot plant or cut flower. Flurprimidol preplant bulb soaks (from 15 to 30 mg dm−3) and foliar sprays (from 15 to 60 mg dm−3) were applied for the growth control of ‘Namakwa’ Lachenalia. Bulbs were planted in November, December, January and February and cultivated in a greenhouse. With a delaying of planting time, more compact plants with shorter and wider leaves and with floriferous inflorescence stems were obtained. Floret length, stem diameter and leaf number remained unaffected by planting date and flurprimidol treatment. The most evident impact of flurprimidol on shortening leaf and inflorescence stem length was noted after soaking the bulbs in 30 mg dm−3. The later the planting date, the shorter the time to the beginning of flowering. Soaking the bulbs in flurprimidol at 15 and 30 mg dm−3 and spraying with flurprimidol at 60 mg dm−3 resulted in a delay of flowering by 3-6 days.
Gabriela Silva Machineski, César Augusto Gotardo Victola, Carolina Honda, Oswaldo Machineski, Maria de Fátima Guimarães and Elcio Liborio Balota
The present study evaluated the effects of five species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on vegetative development parameters and nutrient uptake of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized experimental design with six treatments involving AMF inoculation (non-inoculated; Dentiscutata heterogama, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Rhizophagus clarus, Acaulospora scrobiculata and A. morrowiae), in sterile soil (Oxisol – Dystrophic Red Latosol) under greenhouse conditions. Persimmon seeds were germinated in sterile sand and the seedlings were transplanted to the sterile soil and received AMF inocula. After 360 days, the following vegetative parameters were analyzed: plant height, number of leaves, leaf surface area, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, percentage of root colonization and nutrient accumulation in shoot and root biomass. We observed different responses to the AMF species tested. Seedling height and leaf surface area were promoted by inoculation with D. heterogama and A. morrowiae, and these species also promoted a higher percentage of root colonization. Plants inoculated with D. heterogama and C. etunicatum presented a greater number of leaves, but only D. heterogama promoted significant increases in stem diameter. Shoot dry mass was improved by inoculation with D. heterogama, A. morrowiae and C. etunicatum, while the first two species and R. clarus increased root dry mass. Nutrient accumulation in shoot and root biomass was stimulated by AMF inoculation, especially by D. heterogama and A. morrowiae. Therefore, the effects on early vegetative development were more pronounced in the persimmon seedlings inoculated with D. heterogama.
Noushin Ghazijahani, Ebrahim Hadavi, Chul Hwan Hwang and Byoung Ryong Jeong
We evaluated the effects of spraying different concentrations of citric and malic acids on stock plants in the greenhouse prior to the propagation and rooting of rose (Rosa × hybrida ‘Love Letter’) cuttings. Malic and citric acids (3, 6 and 9 mM) were sprayed several times at 14-day intervals on rose plants in a commercial cut flower producing greenhouse. Single-node cuttings taken from flowering stems were rooted under misty conditions, and the rooting parameters including root count and dry root weight were measured. A distinct change was observed in rooting features in response to the applied organic acids. Malic acid significantly enhanced rooting at the intermediate concentration while retarding it at both the higher and lower concentrations. On the other hand, the effect of citric acid was best at the highest concentration applied. We conclude that in softwood cuttings taken from rose plants these organic acids can act as a potential alternative to the currently applied methods of promoting rooting.
Małgorzata Maślanka and Renata Magdziarz
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of various horticultural substrates (compost, peat-coconut, peat TS1, flower soil, lowmoor peat) and a foliar spray of chlormequat (at a concentration of 1380 mg dm-3) on the growth and flowering of the marigold cultivars belonging to two species: Tagetes erecta - ʻMarvel Mixtureʼ and ʻTaishan Orangeʼ, and Tagetes patula - ʻDurango Redʼ and ʻBonanza Flameʼ. The obtained results show that the plants grown in peat TS1 and peat-coconut were taller, had longer internodes and leaves, and thicker stems than the plants grown in the other substrates. Chlormequat significantly reduced the height of ʻMarvel Mixtureʼ (in peat TS1), ʻTaishan Orangeʼ (in lowmoor peat) and ‘Bonanza Flameʼ (in peat-coconut). The use of chlormequat also accelerated the development of flower heads in ʻTaishan Orangeʼ (in lowmoor peat).