Landscape represents appropriate spatial dimension for a study of ecosystems, especially due to ability to translate scientific knowledge into proper guidance for land use practice and enhancing the inclusion of local stakeholders in decision-making procedures. We tested social preferences method to reach initial and raw overview of the ecosystem services (ES) distribution and their values in the study areas. Perception of experts and local residents about capacities of relevant CORINE land cover (CLC) types to provide various ES was linked with Geographic Information System databases. We quantified the results on the basis of the mean values for each CLC type and the ES groups and these were interpreted also in spatial context. The expectation about perceptible capacities of forest to provide goods and services was fulfilled by responses of the experts, as was the expected difficulty to assess capacities of transitional woodland shrub or complex cultivation patterns. However, additional land cover types in question are meadows and pastures or discon-tinuous urban fabric. Mostly middle ranking values prevail in responses of local residents and uncertainty in the background is much greater comparing to the experts. On the other hand, rural people may better recognise diversified fow of services due to their everyday close connection to more ES. Large variation in the scores of some valued CLC classes in responses of the local residents and also experts seems resulting from lack of knowledge in the background and differences in viewpoint and appreciation. We understand the gaps in evaluating ES by the experts and resident population as good experience and key challenge for the further steps and fine-tuning of the research methods.
Nurul Huda Abdul, Che Salmah Md Rawi, Abu Hassan Ahmad and Salman Abdo Al-Shami
Odonata larvae have been intensively used as bioindicators for freshwater pollution as their community structure closely follow changes in the environment and habitat settings. In this study, 28 taxa of Odonata larvae were collected from three stations (upper, middle and lower) of a polluted river in Malaysia. The upper river basin receives effluents from an oil palm plantation. However, the middle station is presumably contaminated with anthropogenic wastes. The lower station is found to receive polluted discharges from aquaculture outlet. Several environmental parameters of water and sediment were continuously measured during the study. The water parameters showed no significant differences amongst the three stations. The species richness of Odonata was 22, 24 and 20 in the upper, middle and lower stations, respectively. The abundance of Odonata was significantly different among the studied sites. The tolerant damselfly, Pseudagrion sp. (41.22%), and facultative dragonflies, Onychothemis sp. (17.12%), were the most dominant taxa along the river stations. Onychothemis sp. and Paragomphus capricornis were equally important at the upper station [Important Species Index (ISI) 25.3 and 24.2%, respectively]. Pseudagrion sp. only scored an ISI value of 9.7%. Pseudagrion sp., P. capricornis and Onychothemis sp. were dominant in the middle station (ISI: 41.2%, 25.9% and 10.9% respectively), and Pseudagrion sp., Onychothemis sp. and Prodasineura sp. dominated the areas with dense growth of submerged aquatic weeds Hydrilla sp. in the lower station (ISI: 47.9, 24.5 and 13.8%, respectively). On the basis of the variations in larval abundance and ISI values, microhabitats differences partly in response to different types of pollutions entering the water structured the Odonata communities in this river basin.
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In the years 2004-2006, 37 F. rubra L. ecotypes and 35 F. nigrescens Lam. ecotypes were evaluated for their main lawn traits: the general aspect of the plant, slow re-growth, overwintering, winter greenness, leaf fineness and disease resistance. The lawn properties of the ecotypes were assessed with the use of the IHAR 9-grade scale of the visual quality classification system. The study individuals were compared with the model varieties: F. rubra ‘Areta’ and F. nigrescens ‘Nimba’. The ecotypes originated from natural localities in the Lublin region. The experiment was conducted using the method of randomly chosen blocks in three repetitions. One repetition contained six plants of one ecotype grown at a distance of 75 × 30 cm. The aim of the study was to analyze the variability of lawn traits in the examined F. rubra and F. nigrescens ecotypes and to estimate the suitability of the selected material for the breeding of new lawn varieties. Analyses indicated that most of the ecotypes that grow in natural localities in the Lublin region display high-grade lawn traits. This confirms the great suitability of the wild plants for further breeding. Ecotypes of both species obtained high scores comparable with model varieties for their disease resistance, leaf fineness and winter greenness, and also for general aspect and slow re-growth.
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In the period 2006-2008 a comparative study was carried out on the ‘Tempranillo’, ‘Syrah 99’ and ‘Syrah 100’ cultivars, grown in two microregions in Southern Bulgaria - Brestnik and Pesnopoy. The soils in the region of Pesnopoy are of a better mechanical and chemical composition, which preconditions the formation of relatively high yields of good quality grapes. The ‘Tempranillo’ cultivar was highly productive in both microregions, however the quality of the wines was lower, compared to the ‘Syrah’ cultivar. They were poorer both in the content of extract and in fruit aroma. ‘Syrah 99’ from Brestnik and ‘Syrah 100’ clones from Pesnopoy do not differ significantly in productivity, but the wines of ‘Syrah 100’ from the Pesnopoy region were more intense in colour and their aroma was strong, full-bodied and lasting with dominating floral (violet) and forest fruit nuances. Tasting results showed high scores, which is evidence that the young wines have potential and contain the ingredients and components necessary to develop further into top quality red wines.
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