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Net Fiscal Flows and the Size of Cities

fiscal flows, this study has not been paralleled until today. See report in Zimmermann 2011 , p. 664. Table 2 therefore shows the results of that earlier study, which took the Land of Rheinland-Pfalz as an example of differences between rich and poor regions and cities. Trier and its surroundings were at the time an example of relatively poor German areas, whereas Ludwigshafen, dominated by a large chemical complex, was and is among the rich regions. This can be seen by the difference in GDP per capita at that time, which was more than 1 to 2. Table 2

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Ethics for everyday heroes – from Utilitarianism to Effective Altruism

:// EUROSTAT (2016a): Final consumption expenditure of households, by consumption purpose , code: tsdpc520, [online] [Retrieved November 12, 2016]. Available at: EUROSTAT (2016b): GDP per capita in PPS , code: tec00114, [online] [Retrieved November 12, 2016], Available at: MACASKILL, W. (2015a): Doing Good Better London: Guardian books. MACASKILL, W. (2015b): What is Effective Altruism. In: R. Carey

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Military Expenditures and Shadow Economy in the Central and Eastern Europe: is There a Link?

that there is dependence between government military expenditure and the shadow economy. This effect is very robust and it remains significant in many alternative specifications of the model after a number of socioeconomic factors are controlled for, such as level of corruption, rule of law and GDP per capita. There are several possible explanations for these results. First, military-controlled property, such as land and real estate, can be misused for illegal economic activities ( Gupta et al., 2001 ). Furthermore, military expenditures are the most opaque

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Poland’s Economic Performance in Global and Long-term Perspective: Surprises so far and Risks in the Years Ahead

products, followed by the introduction of less costly methods of production and new or improved products. These responses led eventually to an increase in the rate of growth of per capita GDP, substantial enough to resume the process of catching up with the per capita GDP levels of the technologically advanced economies. 3 The unexpected developments in Poland During the last 25 years the rate of growth of per capita GDP in Poland was about twice as high as in the part of the world economy which I call the Technology Frontier Area (TFA). The TFA includes, above all

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Economic convergence on different spatial levels: the conflict between cohesion and growth

-level, which refers to the states as a whole, the statistical units range from Germany with more than 82 million inhabitants to Luxembourg with less than half a million. The same is true for the regional units: The NUTS3-level subsumes regions with a population size between about 20 000 and 5 million. Because of these differences the empirical findings on national and regional disparities should be handled with care and interpreted thoroughly. Regarding the national differences in GDP per capita the gap between the rich and the poor member states of the EU15 has clearly

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Convergence Across Polish Regions, 2005–2011 / Konwergencja Pomiędzy Regionami Polski, 2005–2011


This article analyses the convergence across Polish regions between 2005-2011. Its theoretical and empirical character determined the choice of research methods. The theoretical part includes an analysis of the literature devoted to the convergence theory, and the empirical part is based on statistical surveys. Statistical data used in the article was taken from the following databases: for the United Kingdom - Office for National Statistics; for Finland - Statistic Finland; for Poland and the rest of the countries - Statistical Yearbook of the Regions - Poland from 2005 to 2013. The studies confirmed that in Poland a strong concentration of economic activity took place in analyzed period. The convergence of per capita GDP did not apply. Rich regions grew faster than poor ones. The convergence of labour productivity did not apply either. The divergence of the K/L relation determined the divergence of labour productivity in the analyzed period. In the last part of the article the author analyzed the convergence across regions in EU countries. In case of countries that gained the accession to the EU on 1 May 2004, convergence did not apply. On the other hand, rich countries of EU like Austria, Belgium or the Netherlands confirmed the phenomenon of convergence at the NUTS level in analyzed period.

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Land Reform in the Republic of South Africa: Social Justice or Populism?

-14718226>. “Land Ownership: South Africa Takes a Populist Turn on Land Reform.” 2015. The Economist. 28 Feb. 2015. 15 Sept. 2016. <>. Lipton, Michael. 2009. Land Reform in Developing Countries: Property Rights and Property Wrongs. New York: Routledge. “List of African Countries by GDP per Capita.” n.d. 22 Apr. 2015. <

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Greenfield and Brownfield Investments and Economic Growth: Evidence from Central and Eastern European Union Countries

., & López-Bazo, E. (2005). Breaking the panels: An application to the GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal, 8 (2), 159–175. De Mello, L. R. (1999). Foreign direct investment-led growth: evidence from time series and panel data. Oxford Economic Papers, 51 (1), 133-151. Dumitrescu, E. I., & Hurlin, C. (2012). Testing for Granger non-causality in heterogeneous panels. Economic Modelling, 29 (4), 1450-1460. Eberhardt, M

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The Shadow Economy and Its Impact on National Competitiveness: The Case of Slovenia

:31. Eilat, Y., Zinnes C. (2000), "The Evolution of the Shadow Economy in Transition Countries: Consequences for Economic Growth and Donor Assistance", CAER II Discussion Paper , No. 83, United States Agency for International Development. European Commission (2004), Undeclared work in an enlarged Union: An analysis of undeclared work , Brussels: Employment & European Social Fund, pp. 1-227. Eurostat (GDP), (2006), GDP per capita in PPS, [,39140985&_dad

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Impact of Human Capital on GNP Level

. Hirsch, F., "Social limits of Growth" Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1976. "International Journal of Social Economics", Dipietro, W. R., Anoruo, E., "GDP per capita and its challengers as measures of happiness" Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 10/2006. Ivancevich, J. M., "Human Resource Management" sixth edition, Irwin, 1995. "Journal of Economic Studies", Hansen, P., Knowles, S., "Human capital and returns to scale" Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2

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