Reda Iršėnaitė, Gražina Adamonytė, Inita Daniele, Jonas Kasparavičius, Ernestas Kutorga and Darius Stončius
The paper provides data on macromycete and myxomycete species diversity and distribution in Asveja Regional Park located in eastern Lithuania. A total of 326 species of macromycetes and 33 species and intraspecific taxa of myxomycetes were recorded. Five species, Eocronartium muscicola, Mycena megaspora, Neobulgaria pura, Pachyella violaceonigra and Skeletocutis papyracea, were reported for the first time in Lithuania. Twenty species listed in the Red Data Book of Lithuania were recorded during this study. Distribution and habitats of rare and endangered fungus and myxomycete species are discussed
Contribution to the diversity of soil mites (Acari, Gamasida) in southern Croatia (Dalmatia), with some ecological and zoogeographical notes
The species diversity of soil gamasid mites (Acari) in southern Croatia (Dalmatia) was studied in August 2002. In the Krka National Park, Brač Island, and near the town of Makarska, 320 samples were collected from various microhabitats: soil, grass and moss ground cover, wet moss, needle litter, moss covering tree trunks, and decaying wood). Altogether, 2097 mites of 56 gamasid species were recorded. Dominant species were: Polyaspis patavinus (Brač Island), Zercon fageticola (Makarska), and Cheiroseius serratus (Krka National Park). Analyses of ecological preferences and zoogeographic distribution were made for Polyaspis patavinus, Cheiroseius serratus, Zercon fageticola, Z. berlesei, Z. athiasi, Asca nova and A. aphidioides.
A new nematode species, Subulura mackoi n. sp., is described based on specimens from the colon and caecum of the Eurasian Scops Owl Otus scops (L.) (Aves: Strigiformes) from the Czech Republic, collected in 2011. Males are characterized by 10 pairs of caudal papillae, a single papilla on the upper lip of the cloaca, and small unequal spiculae; female distinguishing features are body length, distance of the vulva from the anterior extremity, tail length, and egg dimension.
Analysis of the zoogeographical distribution and host specialization (in the bird orders) of 68 valid species from the genus Subulura Molin, 1860 shows significantly high species diversity in the tropical zones. Only one species, S. brumpti, is a cosmopolitan parasite of Gallus gallus f. domestica and other domesticated gallinaceous birds. Zoogeographical-host interactions may be utilized to support the identification of morphospecies of the genus Subulura.
F. Bakaria, S. Belhaoues, N. Djebbari, M. Tahri, I. Ladjama and L. Bensaad
The aim of the study was to examine metazoans parasite communities of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in freshwater (Tonga Lake) and brackish water (El Mellah lagoon) in the northeast of Algeria. Six parasite taxa were collected: one monogenean, Pseudodactylogyrus sp.; two crustaceans, Ergasilus sp. and Argulus foliaceus; two nematodes, Cucullanus sp. and Anguillicola crassus; one cestode, Bothriocephalus claviceps. Th e most prevalent parasite taxa in freshwater were Pseudodactylogyrus sp., A. crassus and Bothriocephalus claviceps; whereas in the brackish water, eels were infected mainly with A. crassus. Th e characteristics of the parasite component community structure revealed low parasite species diversity and high dominance values in eels from the two localities. Both communities were dominated by a single parasite species: Tonga eels by the monogenean Pseudodactylogyrus sp. and El Mellah lagoon eels by the nematode A. crassus, verified by high Berger-Parker dominance values of 0.76 and 0.87 respectively.
Michaela Piliarová, Katarína Ondreičková, Martina Hudcovicová, Daniel Mihálik and Ján Kraic
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi living in the soil closely collaborate with plants in their root zone and play very important role in their evolution. Their symbiosis stimulates plant growth and resistance to different environmental stresses. Plant root system, extended by mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, has better capability to reach the water and dissolved nutrients from a much larger volume of soil. This could solve the problem of imminent depletion of phosphate stock, affect plant fertilisation, and contribute to sustainable production of foods, feeds, biofuel, and raw materials. Expanded plant root systems reduce erosion of soil, improve soil quality, and extend the diversity of soil microflora. On the other hand, symbiosis with plants affects species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and increased plant diversity supports diversity of fungi. This review summarizes the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to beneficial potential of their symbiosis with plants, and their function in the ecosystem.
The sediment sequence from Budzewo (Skaliska Basin, north-eastern Poland) contains cladoceran records beginning from the early Holocene. A total of 33 Cladocera taxa were identified in the entire sequence. The cladoceran fauna of the initial stage of palaeolake history in the Preboreal shows high similarity to early Holocene Estonian and Scandinavian records. Benthic Alonella nana was dominant at that time. After that, probably during the Boreal and early Atlantic periods, Cladocera species diversity increased and planktonic forms (bosminas) became dominant, pointing to a rise of water level. The species composition indicates that the lake was meso- to eutrophic. The lake began to shallow during the middle Atlantic. The process was completed in the Subboreal and the lake transformed into a bog. The fall in water level and finally the terrestrialization of the lake is correlated with similar processes recorded in other sediment sequences in northern Poland, suggesting that this event may have been driven by regional factors such as lower precipitation.
Communities of epigeic beetles were studied using pitfall trapping on 10 plots with the different stage of decline and clear-cut plots without coarse woody debris. Species richness (number of all species, S), total species diversity as the Shannon-Wiener’s index (H) and equitability (e) were calculated in the DBreleve. The Ward’s method of hierarchical agglomerative classification with Euclidean distance was used for the differentiation of the communities on the plots. Species data for this analyse were represented by logarithm-transformed activities [log(x+1)]. The single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical testing of differences in structural parameters (e.g. species richness and diversity) amongst distinguished groups of the plots. The species diversity and activity differs on glades without trees and coarse woody debris. The highest number of species was found in clear-cut areas. The lowest number of species was found on the plots with the living forest particularly invaded by bark beetle. This fact is caused by the fact that the clear-cut plots are invaded by ubiquitous and anthropotolerant species with good migration possibilities. These species are adapted to habitats without trees and are able to leave even in the habitats with very sparse or without vegetation. Species living in the forest even under the bark beetle attack are often stenotopic and adapted to the forest microclimate (higher humidity and low average temperature). These species are very sensitive to great difference in the daily changes of microclimate. The study of beetle communities support the hypothesis that the keeping of dead tree stands on plots after bark beetle outbreak is better for biodiversity conservation than the cutting down of trees and the abolishment of stems.
Wojciech Grodzki, Sławomir Ambroży and Wojciech Gil
In the experiment eight populations of Picea abies were chosen at 100 m intervals between 500 m and 1200 m altitude a.s.l.. In each population wood core samples were collected from 14-19 trees (126 cores total), and measured using a Corim Maxi device. At four of the eight sites (every 200 m in elevation between 500 m and 1100 m a.s.l.), the diversity of ground vegetation was evaluated, and temperature was recorded at every 100 m of altitude.
The highest average radial increment of spruce occurred between the altitudes 800-1000 m a.s.l., which is probably the optimum for spruce. The larger increment indices observed at higher altitudes may signify a high growth potential of spruce. It may also suggest a recent upward shift of the optimum growth zone for this tree species.
In 15 phytosociological records, the presence of 148 plant species forming plant associations: Dentario glandulosae- Fagetum typicum (sub-mountainous and mountainous form) and Abieti-Piceetum, and community Abies alba-Rubus hirtus, was documented. No relationship was found between ground vegetation species diversity (expressed by Shannon-Wiener index) and levels of stand diversity.
The vegetation species diversity varied with the elevation above sea level: the highest plant diversity was found at 500 m a.s.l., and decreased with increasing altitude. The potential increase in air temperatures may result in changes to the altitudinal range of many plant species including trees, and consequently in an upward shift of the boundaries of plant zones; in this case the sub-mountainous and lower mountainous forest zone. In this region, the optimal zone for Norway spruce may be restricted to the highest elevations.
Māris Laiviņš, Gunta Čekstere, Anda Medene and Jānis Donis
Investigation of species composition, soil physical and chemical properties, as well as forest productivity of oligomesic dry pine forests (Vacciniosa and Myrtillosa forest types) was carried out in six dry land zones differing in age of the Lake Engure catchment area (sediment zones of the drained lakebed, Mia, Limnea, Litorina Sea, Baltic Ice Lake and glaciofluvial sediment zone in Northern Kursa Upland). Higher species diversity in the tree layer and a more typical podzolisation process was found in the older dry land zones (sediments of the Baltic Ice Lake, Northern Kursa Upland), while higher species diversity in the field layer (higher proportion of grasses and sword grasses), more intensive gleying process in soils, as well as considerably higher stand productivity was observed in the younger dry land zones (the drained lakebed, Mia, Limnea and Littorina Sea stages). Characteristic species of the Vaccinio-Piceetea class were dominant in the pine forests of older dry land zones, whereas species of the Pulsatillo-Pinetea class were typical in the sea coastal pine forests.
Andrzej Klimek, Bogusław Chachaj and Leszek Kosakowski
Influence of sewage sludge composts with straw or ash on oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from pine forest litter in laboratory conditions
In a substrate obtained from municipal sewage sludge composts, the C:N ratio was decreased during the 12-month experiment. The amount of forest litter (layer 1 or 2 cm thick), used for fauna introduction, did not influence significantly the mean abundance of oribatid mites in sewage sludge compost. Oribatid mites tolerated compost alone or with straw, but were negatively influenced by addition of wood-ash. Abundance of oribatid mites in compost alone was increased from the 3rd month, and its maximum occurred in the 10th month. Abundance of oribatid mites in compost with straw was clearly increased since the 10th-12th month of the experiment. Generally the abundance of oribatid mites was mainly affected by Ramusella mihelcici, which was most abundant in compost alone and with straw (maximum abundance was above 100 000 individuals · m-2). However, species diversity of the mites was very low at the end of the experiment.